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《人类减贫的中国实践》白皮书全文(中英文对照)

来源:21英语网
日期:2021-04-07

 国务院新闻办公室6日发布《人类减贫的中国实践》白皮书。全文如下:

人类减贫的中国实践

(2021年4月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

Poverty Alleviation: China's Experience and Contribution

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China

April 2021

First Edition 2021

ISBN 978-7-119-12645-6

© Foreign Languages Press Co. Ltd., Beijing, China, 2021

Published by Foreign Languages Press Co. Ltd.

24 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, China

Distributed by China International Book Trading Corporation

35 Chegongzhuang Xilu, Beijing 100044, China

P.O. Box 399, Beijing, China

Printed in the People's Republic of China

 


目录

前言

一、中国共产党的庄严承诺

(一)中国共产党领导人民夺取革命胜利,建立新中国,开启了实现国家富强、人民富裕的崭新历程

(二)改革开放极大促进了中国发展,中国减贫进程快速推进

(三)中国发展进入新时代,中国减贫进入脱贫攻坚历史新阶段

二、新时代脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利

(一)贫困人口生活水平显著提升

(二)贫困地区落后面貌根本改变

(三)脱贫群众精神风貌焕然一新

(四)特殊困难群体生存发展权利有效保障

(五)贫困地区基层治理能力显著提升

三、实施精准扶贫方略

(一)精准识别、建档立卡,解决“扶持谁”的问题

(二)加强领导、建强队伍,解决“谁来扶”的问题

(三)区分类别、靶向施策,解决“怎么扶”的问题

(四)严格标准、有序退出,解决“如何退”的问题

(五)跟踪监测、防止返贫,解决“如何稳”的问题

四、为人类减贫探索新的路径

(一)坚持以人民为中心

(二)把减贫摆在治国理政突出位置

(三)用发展的办法消除贫困

(四)立足实际推进减贫进程

(五)发挥贫困群众主体作用

(六)汇聚各方力量形成强大合力

五、携手共建没有贫困共同发展的人类命运共同体

(一)中国的减贫和发展加快全球减贫进程

(二)国际社会对中国减贫提供支持和援助

(三)中国积极开展国际减贫交流合作

结束语

附录:中国扶贫标准的变化和调整


Contents

Preface

I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC

II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty

III. The Strategy of Targeted Poverty Alleviation

IV. Exploring a New Path of Poverty Alleviation

V. A Global Community of Shared Future Free from Poverty

Conclusion

Appendix


前言


贫困是人类社会的顽疾,是全世界面临的共同挑战。贫困及其伴生的饥饿、疾病、社会冲突等一系列难题,严重阻碍人类对美好生活的追求。消除贫困是人类梦寐以求的理想,人类发展史就是与贫困不懈斗争的历史。

中国是拥有14亿人口、世界上最大的发展中国家,基础差、底子薄,发展不平衡,长期饱受贫困问题困扰。中国的贫困规模之大、贫困分布之广、贫困程度之深世所罕见,贫困治理难度超乎想象。

今年是中国共产党成立100周年。100年来,中国共产党团结带领人民,以坚定不移、顽强不屈的信念和意志与贫困作斗争。中共十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央领导下,中国组织实施了人类历史上规模空前、力度最大、惠及人口最多的脱贫攻坚战。2021年2月25日,习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告,脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利,中国完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。

占世界人口近五分之一的中国全面消除绝对贫困,提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标,不仅是中华民族发展史上具有里程碑意义的大事件,也是人类减贫史乃至人类发展史上的大事件,为全球减贫事业发展和人类发展进步作出了重大贡献。

贫穷不是命中注定,贫困并非不可战胜。中国减贫的实践表明,与贫困作斗争,最重要的是勇气、远见、责任和担当。只要有坚定意志和决心并付诸实际行动,就能够向着摆脱贫困、实现共同富裕的美好前景不断迈进。

为记录中国消除绝对贫困的伟大历程,介绍人类减贫的中国探索和实践,分享中国扶贫脱贫的经验做法,特发布本白皮书。


Preface


Poverty is a chronic affliction of human society and a common challenge faced by the whole world. Poverty and its associated problems, including hunger, diseases, and social conflicts, are serious impediments to people's pursuit of a better life, so the eradication of poverty has always been a wish to be fulfilled. The history of humankind is the history of relentless struggle against poverty.

China is the world's largest developing country, with a population of 1.4 billion. In addition to its weak foundations and uneven development, the nation had long been plagued by poverty at a scale and a level of severity that has rarely been seen anywhere else in the world. As a result, the challenge of poverty alleviation in China almost defies imagination.

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Over the past century, the Party has united and led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty with unwavering faith and will. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Party Central Committee, with General Secretary Xi Jinping at the core, has fought a decisive battle against poverty that is unprecedented in scale and intensity, and has benefited the largest number of people in human history. At a grand gathering held on February 25, 2021, to mark China's achievements in poverty alleviation and to honor its model fighters against poverty, General Secretary Xi solemnly declared: Victory in the battle against poverty is complete, and China completed the arduous task of eliminating extreme poverty.

China is home to nearly one fifth of the world's population. Its complete eradication of extreme poverty – the first target of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 10 years ahead of schedule, is a milestone in the history of the Chinese nation and the history of humankind, making an important contribution to the cause of global poverty alleviation.

Poverty is not predestined, nor is it unconquerable. China's experience in poverty alleviation indicates that courage, vision, sense of responsibility, and the eagerness to take on challenges are the most essential. With strong will and determination, as well as practical action, one can make steady progress towards overcoming poverty and realizing common prosperity.

This white paper is being issued to record the course of the Chinese people's great fight in eliminating extreme poverty, introduce China's approach, and share its experience and actions in poverty alleviation.


一、中国共产党的庄严承诺

中华民族是历史悠久、勤劳智慧的民族,创造了辉煌灿烂的中华文明。中华民族又是饱经苦难的民族,广大劳动人民长期处于贫困状态。几千年来,中国人民始终为摆脱贫困艰难求索。近代以后,在封建腐朽统治和西方列强侵略下,中国沦为半殖民地半封建社会,亿万民众处于贫困甚至赤贫状态。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,始终梦想实现国家富强、民族复兴,始终梦想过上幸福美好的生活。


I. The Solemn Commitment of the CPC


The Chinese nation has a long history, diligent and intelligent people and splendid civilization. Over the history of thousands of years, eliminating poverty has been the persistent goal of the Chinese people, who suffered hardships and difficulties frequently. From the middle of the 19th century, foreign aggression and the decadence of the imperial dynasty reduced China to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society, and hundreds of millions of its people were plunged into poverty or even extreme poverty. But the Chinese people have fought with fortitude to realize their dream – achieving economic prosperity, national rejuvenation, and a happy and better life.

(一)中国共产党领导人民夺取革命胜利,建立新中国,开启了实现国家富强、人民富裕的崭新历程

1921年7月,中国共产党诞生。中国产生了共产党,这是开天辟地的大事变。从诞生之日起,中国共产党就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴作为初心使命,团结带领人民为创造自己的美好生活进行了长期艰辛奋斗。以毛泽东同志为核心的第一代中央领导集体,把农民翻身解放作为革命的基本问题,领导人民进行土地革命、实行“耕者有其田”,推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的反动统治,取得新民主主义革命胜利,建立了新中国,结束了中国人民长期以来遭受压迫与剥削的历史,结束了国家战乱频仍、四分五裂的局面,实现了民族独立和人民解放,为中国摆脱贫穷落后、实现繁荣富强扫清了障碍、创造了根本政治条件。

1949年10月1日,中华人民共和国成立,中国人民从此站立起来、当家做主,真正成为新国家新社会的主人。面对一穷二白、百业凋敝的困难局面,中国共产党团结带领人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗,发奋图强、重整山河。在全国开展轰轰烈烈的土地改革,延续2000多年的封建土地制度被废除,消除了造成农民贫困的主要制度因素。对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造,建立起社会主义基本制度,为从根本上解决贫困问题提供了最基本制度保证。开展大规模社会主义建设,建立独立的、比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,大力发展集体经济,大兴农田水利。大办农村教育和合作医疗,探索建立以集体经济为基础、以“五保”制度和特困群体救济为主体的农村初级社会保障体系。社会主义建设在曲折中向前推进,人民物质生活和文化水平逐步提高,占世界近四分之一人口的中国人民特别是农民的基本生活需求得到初步满足。

1. The CPC Led the People to Win Victory in the Revolution, Build the People's Republic of China (PRC), Opening a New Journey Towards Prosperity

The founding of the CPC in July 1921 was an epochal event in China's history. The CPC has taken the happiness of the people and rejuvenation of the nation as its aspiration since its founding, and united and led the people to fight for a better life over the decades. The Party's first generation of central collective leadership under Mao Zedong regarded the liberation of peasants as the fundamental issue of the revolution, led the people to launch the Agrarian Revolution to realize the goal of "the land to the tiller", overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and won victory in the New Democratic Revolution and established the PRC, bringing an end to sustained oppression, exploitation of the people, frequent wars, and partitioning of the country, and realizing the goals of national independence and people's liberation. This helped to remove the obstacles to China's progress, and created the political conditions it needed to eradicate poverty, regain national strength, and realize prosperity for everyone.

The founding of the PRC on October 1, 1949, allowed the Chinese people to stand upright and become the true masters of the country. To change the backward situation starting from scratch, the CPC united and led the people to rely on themselves and strived to build their homeland with strong determination and concerted effort. Land reform was rolled out across the country, abolishing the feudal land system that had endured for over 2,000 years. This removed the major institutional obstacle to eliminating poverty. Socialist transformation was carried out in agriculture, individual craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce. The establishment of the socialist system provided a basic institutional guarantee for addressing the root causes of poverty. Socialist development was carried out on all fronts, creating an independent and rather complete industrial system and economic system. Efforts were made to develop the collective economy, improve farmland irrigation and water conservation, and develop rural education and cooperative medical services. A preliminary social security system took shape, with the collective economy at the base, and the "five guarantees"[ The National Agricultural Development Program (1956-1967) specified that agricultural cooperatives should give proper care to commune members who could not work and had no family to support them, by providing them with proper food, clothing, fuel, and education (for children and teenagers), and by paying their burial expenses. ] and relief for people in extreme poverty as the core. The Chinese people – including the farmers – who made up nearly one quarter of the world's population, saw their basic living needs met. Their living standards and educational level improved. Socialist building during this period pressed ahead amidst successes and setbacks.

(二)改革开放极大促进了中国发展,中国减贫进程加快推进

1978年12月,中共中央召开十一届三中全会,开启了中国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期。改革开放是中国人民和中华民族发展史上的又一次伟大革命,为中国注入了创新和发展的强大动力。中国经济社会快速发展,中国减贫进程加快推进,贫困人口大幅度减少。

改革开放初期,面对中国农村贫困人口基数大、贫困发生率高的严峻形势,以邓小平同志为核心的第二代中央领导集体,作出“贫穷不是社会主义,社会主义要消灭贫穷”的重要论断,提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标,制定“三步走”发展战略,提出“两个大局”的战略构想,实施一系列农业农村重大改革,从国家层面开展大规模、有计划、有组织的扶贫开发。在农村实施以家庭联产承包为主的生产责任制和统分结合的双层经营体制,理顺了农村最基本的生产关系,调动了农民生产积极性,使农业生产迅速扭转了长期徘徊不前的局面。实施农产品流通体制改革,大力发展乡镇企业,促进了农村整体收入水平提高。成立专门扶贫机构,确定了扶贫标准、重点片区和贫困县,启动实施“三西”农业建设。通过一系列重大举措,解放了农村生产力,释放了农村活力,推动了农村经济发展,促进了农民收入增加和观念更新,中国扶贫开发进入历史新时期。

上世纪90年代初,在农村贫困问题大大缓解的同时,贫困问题由普遍性分布呈现分层、分块、分化等新特征,区域间发展不均衡问题凸显。以江泽民同志为核心的第三代中央领导集体,制定新的“三步走”发展战略,提出全面建设小康社会目标,继续推进大规模扶贫开发国家行动。1994年,中国国务院印发《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》,这是新中国历史上第一个有明确目标、明确对象、明确措施和明确期限的全国扶贫开发工作纲领。“八七计划”提出,从1994年到2000年,力争用7年左右的时间,基本解决当时全国农村8000万贫困人口的温饱问题。1996年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,进一步明确到20世纪末基本解决贫困人口温饱问题的目标绝不动摇,确定了由救济式扶贫转向开发式扶贫的基本方针。1999年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,对夺取“八七计划”的胜利作出部署。2001年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,中国国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2001-2010年)》。中国的扶贫开发在取得重要阶段性进展基础上,继续向纵深推进。按照当时的扶贫标准,2000年底,中国农村贫困人口减少到3209万人,贫困发生率降低到3.5%。

进入21世纪,以胡锦涛同志为总书记的中共中央,坚持科学发展观,构建社会主义和谐社会,提出全面建成小康社会目标,推进社会主义新农村建设,制定实施一系列扶贫开发新政策新举措。对扶贫工作重点与瞄准对象作出重大调整,把中西部地区作为扶贫工作重点区域,在592个国家扶贫工作重点县的基础上,选定15万个贫困村作为扶贫对象,实施参与式“整村推进”扶贫。大力推进产业扶贫和劳动力培训转移,积极开展易地搬迁扶贫和生态移民。实施西部大开发、振兴东北地区等老工业基地、中部地区崛起等国家区域发展战略,促进区域、城乡协调发展。取消农业税,建立新型农村合作医疗等一系列农村社会保障制度,农民负担重的状况得到根本性改变。2011年,中共中央召开扶贫开发工作会议,中共中央、国务院印发《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。中国的扶贫开发,从以解决温饱为主要任务的阶段转入巩固温饱成果、加快脱贫致富、改善生态环境、提高发展能力、缩小发展差距的新阶段。按照当时的扶贫标准,2010年底,中国农村贫困人口减少到2688万人,贫困发生率降为2.8%;2011年,中国将扶贫标准提高到2300元,在新的扶贫标准下,中国贫困人口为1.22亿。

2. Reform and Opening Up Accelerated Development and Poverty Alleviation in China

Held in December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee ushered in a new chapter of reform and opening up and socialist modernization in China. Reform and opening up has been another great revolution in the history of the Chinese people and Chinese nation, injecting momentum and innovation. The rapid socioeconomic development that ensued gave a vigorous boost to poverty alleviation, and resulted in a sharp decline in the impoverished population.

In the initial period of reform and opening up, confronted by the grim challenge of a large rural impoverished population base and a high incidence of poverty, the second generation of the central collective leadership headed by Deng Xiaoping issued a declaration that "Poverty is not socialism; socialism means eliminating poverty". It set the goal of ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life by the end of the 20th century, formulated a three-step strategic plan[ The 13th CPC National Congress proposed that a three-step strategic plan for China's economic development would be laid out after the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee: doubling the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s and ensuring that the people would have adequate food and clothing as the first step; doubling the 1990 GNP by the end of the 20th century and ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life as the second step; and increasing the per capita GNP level to that of moderately developed countries, ensuring the people a relatively affluent life, and realizing basic modernization by the middle of the 21st century as the third step. ], and articulated the vision of "Two Development Strategies"[ In 1988, Deng Xiaoping proposed that "The coastal areas, which comprise a vast region with a population of 200 million, should accelerate their opening to the outside world, and we should help them develop rapidly first; afterwards they can promote the development of the interior. The development of the coastal areas is of overriding importance, and the interior provinces should subordinate themselves to it. When the coastal areas have developed to a certain extent, they will be required to give more help to the interior. Then, the development of the interior provinces will be of overriding importance, and the coastal areas will in turn have to subordinate themselves to it." (Source: "The Central Leadership Must Have Authority", Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol III.) ]. A swathe of major reforms involving agriculture and rural areas were launched, providing for a massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation effort at the national level. The two-tier management system adopted in the rural areas, integrating cooperative management with household contract management, clarified the most basic production relations and inspired the farmers' enthusiasm, bringing an end to a period of protracted stagnation in agricultural output. Reform of the distribution system for agricultural products was enacted. A major effort was made to develop township enterprises in order to increase overall incomes in rural areas. Special poverty alleviation agencies were set up, poverty standards were set, key impoverished areas and counties were identified, and a special plan for agricultural development in the three western regions[ The three western regions were Hexi Region and Dingxi Region in Gansu Province and the mountainous region in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the most impoverished contiguous areas in the country at the beginning of reform and opening up. In December 1982, China launched poverty alleviation initiatives in these regions to boost their agricultural development. This involved 47 counties, cities and districts (which expanded to 57 in 1992). It was a groundbreaking project in China's poverty alleviation efforts. It set a precedent in regional poverty alleviation, accumulating rich experience in moving from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation, pooling resources for the development of impoverished areas, for poverty alleviation through relocation, and for combining development-driven poverty alleviation with developing the eco-economy. These successful measures have had a profound influence on massive, planned, well-organized poverty alleviation efforts across the country starting from 1986. ] was launched. These measures liberated the rural productive forces, released vitality, boosted economic development, increased farmers' incomes, and updated their mindsets. Development-driven poverty alleviation opened a new chapter in China.

By the early 1990s, there had been visible progress in poverty alleviation in rural areas. In the meantime, poverty had evolved from a widespread problem into one afflicting particular regions, groups and populations, highlighting the problem of uneven regional development. The Party's third generation of central collective leadership with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core formulated a three-step development strategic plan[ The 15th CPC National Congress held in 1997 drew up a new three-step strategic plan. The first step involved doubling the 2000 GNP, giving the people greater prosperity, and putting in place a relatively complete socialist market economy system, all by the end of 2010. The second step involved working hard for another decade to further develop the economy by the centenary of the CPC, and to improve all relevant systems. The third step involved realizing basic modernization and developing China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, and culturally advanced by the time we celebrate the centenary of the PRC in the middle of the 21st century. ], put forward the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and continued to press ahead with massive national campaigns on poverty alleviation. In 1994, the State Council launched the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program (1994-2000), China's first ever national poverty alleviation program with definite goals, targets, measures and deadlines. It committed to ensuring that the basic needs of 80 million impoverished rural residents would be met in the seven years from 1994 to 2000. In 1996, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, further clarifying the steadfast commitment to the goal of being able to provide adequate food and clothing for the impoverished people by the end of the 20th century and confirming the shift from relief-based poverty alleviation to development-driven poverty alleviation. In 1999, the central authorities held the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, making plans to ensure success of the Priority Poverty Alleviation Program. Another conference on poverty alleviation was convened in 2001, and the State Council issued the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2001-2010). On the basis of initial progress of China's poverty alleviation, the campaign continued with further measures. By the end of 2000, the impoverished population in rural areas had been reduced to 32.09 million and the incidence of poverty down to 3.5%, based on the poverty alleviation standard at the time.

In the 21st century, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao as General Secretary embraced the Scientific Outlook on Development. Its goals were to advance the development of a harmonious society, build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and facilitate the development of a new socialist countryside.

It enacted a new series of poverty alleviation policies and measures. This resulted in major adjustments to the focus and targets of poverty alleviation work, listing the central and western regions as the priority region, and choosing as individual targets 150,000 impoverished villages besides the 592 key counties, where the full participation of villagers in poverty alleviation efforts was encouraged.

A whole range of efforts were directed to business development, the training and transfer of rural labor, poverty alleviation through relocation, and relocation for the development of the eco-economy. State strategy of regional development was implemented, such as developing west China, revitalizing old industrial bases in the northeast, and stimulating the rise of the central region. These achieved coordinated development between regions and between rural and urban areas. The Agricultural Tax was abolished and a series of rural social security systems such as the new cooperative medical care system were established, greatly easing the burden on farmers. The National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in 2011 made plans for a new phase in the battle against poverty to ensure that moderate prosperity in all respects would be achieved by 2020. After the meeting, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020). China's poverty alleviation effort had evolved from its primary mission – meeting the basic needs of the poor – to a new stage of consolidating this achievement, accelerating poverty alleviation, improving the eco-environment, increasing development capacity, and bridging the development gap. By the end of 2010, according to the poverty standard, the impoverished rural population had been reduced to 26.88 million, and the incidence of poverty had fallen to 2.8%. In 2011, the standard was raised to RMB2,300, and accordingly the poor population was 122 million.

(三)中国发展进入新时代,中国减贫进入脱贫攻坚历史新阶段

中共十八大以来,中国发展进入新时代,全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标进入关键阶段。经济社会快速发展,综合国力明显增强,社会保障体系更加健全,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化加快推进,为减贫事业发展奠定了坚实的人力、财力、物力基础,提供了有力制度支撑。同时,中国仍然面临严峻的贫困形势,面对的都是贫中之贫、坚中之坚,减贫进入啃硬骨头、攻坚拔寨的冲刺阶段,采用常规思路和办法、按部就班推进难以完成任务,必须以更大的决心、更明确的思路、更精准的举措、超常规的力度,众志成城实现脱贫攻坚目标。

以习近平同志为核心的中共中央,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,提出实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,推进决胜全面建成小康社会,把贫困人口全部脱贫作为全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的底线任务和标志性指标,将脱贫攻坚纳入“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局,明确到2020年现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困的目标任务,汇聚全党全国全社会之力打响脱贫攻坚战。习近平总书记时刻挂念贫困地区和困难群众,把扶贫作为治国理政的重要内容,花的精力最多,提出一系列重要思想重要论述,作出一系列重大决策部署。2012年,中共十八大提出全面建成小康社会奋斗目标,十八大召开后不久,习近平总书记就指出“小康不小康,关键看老乡,关键在贫困的老乡能不能脱贫”,强调“决不能落下一个贫困地区、一个贫困群众”,拉开了新时代脱贫攻坚的序幕。2013年,习近平总书记赴湖南省花垣县十八洞村考察时,首次提出“实事求是、因地制宜、分类指导、精准扶贫”的理念。2014年,习近平总书记在参加十二届全国人大二次会议贵州代表团审议时指出,“看真贫、扶真贫、真扶贫”。2015年,习近平总书记出席中央扶贫开发工作会议时指出,“要立下愚公移山志,咬定目标、苦干实干”,吹响了脱贫攻坚战的冲锋号。2017年,习近平总书记在中共十九大报告中指出,“让贫困人口和贫困地区同全国一道进入全面小康社会是我们党的庄严承诺”“坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战”,动员全党全国全社会聚力攻克深度贫困堡垒、决战决胜脱贫攻坚。2020年,面对突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情,习近平总书记主持召开决战决胜脱贫攻坚座谈会进行再部署再动员,指出农村贫困人口全部脱贫“必须如期实现,没有任何退路和弹性。这是一场硬仗,越到最后越要紧绷这根弦,不能停顿、不能大意、不能放松”,要求全党全国以更大的决心、更强的力度,做好“加试题”、打好收官战,信心百倍向着脱贫攻坚的最后胜利进军。

习近平总书记亲自指挥、亲自部署、亲自督战,出席中央扶贫开发工作会议,7次主持召开中央扶贫工作座谈会,50多次调研扶贫工作,连续5年审定脱贫攻坚成效考核结果,连续7年在全国扶贫日期间出席重要活动或作出重要指示,连续7年在新年贺词中强调脱贫攻坚,每年在全国两会期间下团组同代表委员共商脱贫攻坚大计,多次回信勉励基层干部群众投身减贫事业。习近平总书记走遍全国14个集中连片特困地区,考察了20多个贫困村,深入贫困家庭访贫问苦,倾听贫困群众意见建议,了解扶贫脱贫需求,极大鼓舞了贫困群众脱贫致富的信心和决心。2021年2月25日,习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告中国脱贫攻坚战取得了全面胜利,完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务,创造了又一个彪炳史册的人间奇迹。

回顾中国共产党领导人民消除绝对贫困的艰辛历程,极不平凡,极不容易。100年来,中国共产党始终坚守初心使命,担当起对人民的责任,践行对人民的承诺,为实现民族独立、人民解放和国家富强、人民富裕接续奋斗,付出巨大牺牲,赢得了人民的拥护和信赖。100年来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民自强不息、艰苦奋斗,依靠自己的双手,付出难以想象的辛劳和汗水,摆脱了绝对贫困,走上了全面小康、共同富裕的康庄大道。100年来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃,人民的生存权发展权充分保障,社会公平正义有力彰显,为更好实现人的全面发展奠定了坚实基础。

3. China in a New Era and a New Battle Against Poverty

China marched into a new era after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. The country reached a critical stage in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieving the First Centenary Goal. Rapid economic and social development, a marked increase in comprehensive national strength, a better social security system, and progress in modernizing China's system and capacity for governance provided solid manpower, material, and financial foundations and strong institutional support for its poverty alleviation efforts. But the country still faced a daunting challenge since it had to solve the most difficult problems in raising the poorest population out of poverty in the coming period. China's battle against extreme poverty had entered the toughest stage. It was hard to complete the task with conventional approaches and ideas. To achieve the goal of poverty alleviation, the nation had to pull together with greater determination, sharper thinking, more targeted measures, and extraordinary efforts.

The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core takes the desire of the people for a better life as its goal. It has committed to realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation and securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Poverty alleviation, a key task and index of the realization of the First Centenary Goal, has been included in the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The CPC set the goals that by 2020 it would help all the rural population out of poverty as defined by the existing standard, raise all impoverished counties out of poverty, and eliminate poverty over entire regions – mobilizing the whole Party, the whole country, and all sectors of society to engage in this battle. President Xi Jinping, always concerned about impoverished regions and families in straitened circumstances, has always put poverty alleviation at the top of his work agenda and devoted much of his energy to it. He has presented a series of important ideas and proposals, and made some major policy decisions. The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 set the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Soon after that, Xi enunciated, "To achieve initial prosperity in the countryside, it is essential to raise rural living standards and particularly those of impoverished villagers." Launching the campaign against poverty in the new era, he also emphasized, "No single poor area or single poor person should be left behind in achieving this goal." In 2013, on his inspection tour to Shibadong Village, Huayuan County, Hunan Province, Xi proposed for the first time the concept of "giving differentiated guidance for targeted poverty alleviation in line with local conditions by seeking truth from facts". In 2014, while attending the deliberation session of the Guizhou delegation at the Second Plenary Session of the 12th National People's Congress, Xi stated, "Inspection tours must be conducted to identify the truly poor. Poverty alleviation must reach those who truly need it, and poverty must be fully eliminated." In 2015, at the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, he sounded the bugle call to battle, "We should be determined, dedicate ourselves, and work hard towards the goal." In 2017, in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress, Xi emphasized the need to mobilize the energies of the whole Party, the whole country, and the whole of society to win the battle against extreme poverty and eradicate it, "Ensuring that poor people and poor areas will enter the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country is a solemn promise made by our Party… We must win the battle against poverty." In 2020, faced with the sudden attack of Covid-19, Xi mapped out new plans for mobilization at a seminar on poverty alleviation, emphasizing that lifting poor people in the rural areas out of poverty "must be achieved as scheduled". "It is non-negotiable. This is a tough battle with no route of retreat. We must double our efforts till the last minute. We must not pause, slacken off or be negligent." He asked the whole Party to perform well in this "difficult test", to apply more determination and more vigor, and to be confident of bringing the battle to a successful end.

President Xi Jinping has assumed leadership, made plans, and directed the battle in person.

He has attended the National Conference on Development-driven Poverty Alleviation, and presided over seven seminars on poverty elimination. He has made over 50 fact-finding trips. In every one of the last five years, he has reviewed the evaluation reports of the poverty alleviation work. In every one of the last seven years, he has attended important events or issued directives on the National Poverty Alleviation Day. In every one of the last seven years, he has expounded on the fight against extreme poverty in his New Year address. In every one of the last eight years, he has discussed plans for the battle against poverty with delegates during the Two Sessions and written letters to encourage grassroots officials and communities to engage in the great fight. He has visited every one of the 14 contiguous poor areas across the country and over 20 poor villages, and sat in the homes of impoverished households to hear of their difficulties, suggestions, and needs, building up their confidence and determination, and their belief that they can work their way out of poverty. On February 25, 2021, at the National Poverty Alleviation Summary and Commendation Conference, he declared that China had secured a comprehensive victory in the fight against poverty, and completed the arduous task of eradicating extreme poverty – an outstanding and historic achievement.

The strenuous process whereby the CPC has led the Chinese people in the battle against poverty has been extraordinary and difficult. Over the past 100 years, the Party has committed itself to the original aspiration of seeking happiness for the people, taken on its responsibility for the people, honored its promise to the people, and made huge sacrifices in fighting to win national independence and people's liberation, to make China prosperous and strong, and to bring common prosperity to all. In the process it has won the support and trust of the people.

Over the past 100 years the Chinese people, under the leadership of the CPC, have never faltered in pursuit of progress, have put in unimaginable efforts, and have relied on themselves to eradicate extreme poverty, and march towards shared all-round prosperity.

Over the past 100 years, under the leadership of the CPC, China has stood tall, become prosperous, and grown in overall national strength. The protection of the rights to subsistence and development, and the promotion of equality and justice have laid solid foundations for well-rounded human development.


二、新时代脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利

中共十八大以来,经过8年持续奋斗,到2020年底,中国如期完成新时代脱贫攻坚目标任务,现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫,832个贫困县全部摘帽,12.8万个贫困村全部出列,区域性整体贫困得到解决,完成消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。

脱贫攻坚战对中国农村的改变是历史性的、全方位的,是中国农村的又一次伟大革命,深刻改变了贫困地区落后面貌,有力推动了中国农村整体发展,补齐了全面建成小康社会最突出短板,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现第二个百年奋斗目标奠定了坚实基础。脱贫攻坚战全面胜利,中华民族在几千年发展历史上首次整体消除绝对贫困,实现了中国人民的千年梦想、百年夙愿。


II. Final Victory in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty


China's fight against poverty entered a critical stage after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. At the end of 2020, through eight years of hard work, China achieved the goal of eliminating extreme poverty – a key goal for the new era of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The 98.99 million people in rural areas who were living below the current poverty threshold all shook off poverty (Figure 1); all the 128,000 impoverished villages and 832 designated poor counties got rid of poverty (Figure 2). China has eliminated poverty over entire regions and eradicated extreme poverty.

The battle against poverty has been another great revolution in rural China, leading to historic and comprehensive changes. The campaign saw an end to the backwardness of poverty-stricken areas, boosted overall rural development, resolved the greatest threat to success in achieving moderate prosperity in all respects, and laid a solid foundation for building a modern socialist China and realizing the Second Centenary Goal. China has secured a complete victory in the battle against extreme poverty, eliminating overall and extreme poverty for the first time in its history of thousands of years, and realizing a century-long aspiration of the Chinese people.

(一)贫困人口生活水平显著提升

经过脱贫攻坚战,贫困人口的收入和福利水平大幅提高,“两不愁三保障”全面实现,教育、医疗、住房、饮水等条件明显改善,既满足了基本生存需要,也为后续发展奠定了基础。脱贫攻坚的阳光照耀到每一个角落,贫困群众的生活发生了巨大变化。

贫困人口收入水平持续提升。贫困地区农村居民人均可支配收入,从2013的6079元增长到2020年的12588元,年均增长11.6%,增长持续快于全国农村,增速比全国农村高2.3个百分点。贫困人口工资性收入和经营性收入占比逐年上升,转移性收入占比逐年下降,自主增收脱贫能力稳步提高。少数民族和民族地区脱贫攻坚成效显著,2016年至2020年,内蒙古自治区、广西壮族自治区、西藏自治区、宁夏回族自治区、新疆维吾尔自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个多民族省份贫困人口累计减少1560万人。28个人口较少民族全部实现整族脱贫,一些新中国成立后“一步跨千年”进入社会主义社会的“直过民族”,又实现了从贫穷落后到全面小康的第二次历史性跨越。

“两不愁三保障”全面实现。脱贫攻坚普查显示,贫困户全面实现不愁吃、不愁穿,平时吃得饱且能适当吃好,一年四季都有应季的换洗衣物和御寒被褥。贫困人口受教育的机会显著增多、水平持续提高,农村贫困家庭子女义务教育阶段辍学问题实现动态清零,2020年贫困县九年义务教育巩固率达到94.8%。持续完善县乡村三级医疗卫生服务体系,把贫困人口全部纳入基本医疗保险、大病保险、医疗救助三重制度保障范围,实施大病集中救治、慢病签约管理、重病兜底保障等措施,99.9%以上的贫困人口参加基本医疗保险,全面实现贫困人口看病有地方、有医生、有医疗保险制度保障,看病难、看病贵问题有效解决。实施农村危房改造,贫困人口全面实现住房安全有保障。实施农村饮水安全和巩固提升工程,累计解决2889万贫困人口的饮水安全问题,饮用水量和水质全部达标,3.82亿农村人口受益;贫困地区自来水普及率从2015年的70%提高到2020年的83%。

1. Significant Improvement in the Living Standards of the Poor

Through poverty alleviation, there has been a substantial improvement in the incomes and welfare of the poor. The Two Assurances and Three Guarantees[ This refers to assurances of adequate food and clothing, and guarantees of access to compulsory education, basic medical services and safe housing for impoverished rural residents. ] have been realized; education, healthcare, housing and drinking water supplies are much improved. These provisions have covered all basic needs and laid the foundations for future development. The fight against poverty has led to dramatic changes in the lives of the impoverished.

The incomes of the impoverished are increasing (Figure 3). The per capita disposable income of the rural poor increased from RMB6,079 in 2013 to RMB12,588 in 2020, up by 11.6% per annum on average. The growth rate was 2.3 percentage points higher than the national rural average. Their salary income and operative income kept increasing over the years in proportion to their transfer income, showing a stronger ability to shake off poverty through their own efforts.

Ethnic minority areas have made notable progress in fighting poverty. From 2016 to 2020, in the five autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang) and three provinces with a large multi-ethnic population (Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai), the number of the poor dropped by 15.6 million. Extreme poverty was eliminated in all 28 of the minority ethnic groups with a small population. Some ethnic groups, still at the later stage of primitive society when the PRC was founded in 1949, leapfrogged to socialism and then again made great strides towards moderate prosperity in all respects.

The Two Assurances and Three Guarantees have been realized. According to the national survey of poverty alleviation[ The national survey of poverty alleviation is a full review of China's progress in fighting poverty and has a fundamental importance for targeted poverty alleviation. From 2020 to 2021, the survey was conducted in 22 provinces and equivalent administrative units in central and western China, focusing on the veracity of poverty alleviation results, particularly the overall progress in designated poor counties. The survey includes registration of poverty-stricken populations, progress in the Two Assurances and Three Guarantees, participation of the impoverished in poverty alleviation programs, and basic public services in poor counties and villages. ], poor households now have adequate food and clothing all year round and a proper supply of nutritious food. They have clothing for all four seasons and comforters that protect them from cold weather.

Access to good quality education for the impoverished has improved remarkably; there are no dropouts in the countryside due to financial difficulties; nine-year compulsory education is now available to all children from rural poor households, and the completion rate in 2020 was 94.8%.

The three-tier healthcare system at village, township and county levels has been improved. All poverty-stricken populations now have access to basic medical insurance, critical illness insurance, and medical assistance, to ensure medical treatment to the impoverished with major illnesses, contracted healthcare to the impoverished with chronic diseases, and guaranteed medical services for the impoverished with critical illnesses. Basic medical insurance coverage of the poor is now over 99.9%. All the impoverished have been guaranteed medical services and medical insurance. Through these measures, China has resolved the problem of difficult and expensive access to medical treatment for poverty-stricken residents.

The program of renovation of dilapidated rural homes has ensured safe housing for all the impoverished (Box 1). The program of safe drinking water for rural residents has secured supplies to 28.89 million poor in terms of both quantity and quality, and benefited 382 million rural population; tap water coverage increased from 70% in 2015 to 83% in 2020.

(二)贫困地区落后面貌根本改变

长期以来,贫困地区基础设施薄弱,公共服务匮乏,经济社会发展滞后。脱贫攻坚战不仅使农村贫困人口全部脱贫,而且使贫困地区经济社会发展大踏步赶上来,整体面貌发生历史性巨变。

基础设施显著改善。出行难、用电难、用水难、通信难,是长期以来制约贫困地区发展的瓶颈。把基础设施建设作为脱贫攻坚基础工程,集中力量,加大投入,全力推进,补齐了贫困地区基础设施短板,推动了贫困地区经济社会快速发展。以建好、管好、护好、运营好农村公路(简称“四好农村路”,为牵引,积极推进贫困地区建设外通内联、通村畅乡、客车到村、安全便捷的交通运输网络。截至2020年底,全国贫困地区新改建公路110万公里、新增铁路里程3.5万公里,贫困地区具备条件的乡镇和建制村全部通硬化路、通客车、通邮路,贫困地区因路而兴、因路而富。努力改善贫困地区水利基础设施条件,2016年以来,新增和改善农田有效灌溉面积8029万亩,新增供水能力181亿立方米,水利支撑贫困地区发展的能力显著增强。大幅提升贫困地区用电条件,实施无电地区电力建设、农村电网改造升级、骨干电网和输电通道建设等电网专项工程,把电网延伸到更多偏远地区,农村地区基本实现稳定可靠的供电服务全覆盖,供电能力和服务水平明显提升。加强贫困地区通信设施建设,贫困村通光纤和4G比例均超过98%,远程教育加快向贫困地区学校推进,远程医疗、电子商务覆盖所有贫困县,贫困地区信息化建设实现跨越式发展。基础设施的极大改善,从根本上破解了贫困地区脱贫致富的难题,畅通了贫困地区与外界的人流、物流、知识流、信息流,为贫困地区发展提供了有力的硬件支撑。

基本公共服务水平明显提升。在解决好贫困人口吃饭、穿衣、居住等温饱问题基础上,大力提升贫困地区教育、医疗、文化、社会保障等基本公共服务水平,实现贫困人口学有所教、病有所医、老有所养、弱有所扶,为贫困地区发展夯实基础、积蓄后劲。2013年以来,累计改造贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校10.8万所,实现贫困地区适龄儿童都能在所在村上幼儿园和小学。贫困地区公共文化服务水平不断提高,截至2020年底,中西部22个省份基层文化中心建设完成比例达到99.48%,基本实现村级文化设施全覆盖;持续推进文化下乡,贫困群众也有了丰富多彩的业余文化生活。贫困地区医疗条件显著改善,消除了乡村两级医疗卫生机构和人员“空白点”,98%的贫困县至少有一所二级以上医院,贫困地区县级医院收治病种中位数达到全国县级医院整体水平的90%,贫困人口的常见病、慢性病基本能够就近获得及时诊治,越来越多的大病在县域内就可以得到有效救治。综合保障体系逐步健全,贫困县农村低保标准全部超过国家扶贫标准,1936万贫困人口纳入农村低保或特困救助供养政策;6098万贫困人口参加了城乡居民基本养老保险,基本实现应保尽保。

经济持续快速发展。脱贫攻坚极大释放了贫困地区蕴含的潜力,为经济发展注入强大动力。产业结构显著改善,特色优势产业不断发展,电子商务、光伏、旅游等新业态新产业蓬勃兴起,推动了贫困地区经济多元化发展,扩大了市场有效供给,厚植了经济发展基础。贫困地区的地区生产总值持续保持较快增长,2015年以来,人均一般公共预算收入年均增幅高出同期全国平均水平约7个百分点。收入的持续稳定增长,激发了贫困群众提升生活品质、丰富精神文化生活的需求,拉动了庞大的农村消费,为促进国内大循环提供了支撑。

优秀文化传承弘扬。加强贫困地区传统文化、特色文化、民族文化的保护、传承和弘扬,贫困地区优秀文化繁荣发展。实施国家传统工艺振兴工程,引导和推动革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区保护好、发展好当地优秀传统技艺。支持贫困地区深入挖掘民族文化、红色文化、乡土文化、非物质文化遗产特色资源,加强保护研究、人才培养、展示推广,打造特色文化旅游产业。开展留存扶贫印记活动,建立贫困村扶贫档案,鼓励支持扶贫题材影视文艺作品创作,生动记录脱贫致富历程。贫困地区优秀文化的保护传承,既促进了贫困群众增收致富,也延续了文脉、留住了乡愁。

生态环境更美更好。将扶贫开发与水土保持、环境保护、生态建设相结合,通过生态扶贫、农村人居环境整治、生态脆弱地区易地扶贫搬迁等措施,贫困地区生态保护水平明显改善,守护了绿水青山、换来了金山银山。脱贫攻坚既促进了贫困人口“增收”,又促进了贫困地区“增绿”,极大改善了贫困地区生态环境,广大农村旧貌换了新颜,生态宜居水平不断提高。

深度贫困地区是贫中之贫、坚中之坚。通过脱贫攻坚,“三区三州”等深度贫困地区突出问题得到根本解决,基础设施和公共服务水平显著提升,特色主导产业加快发展,社会文明程度明显提高,区域性整体贫困问题彻底解决。

2. Poverty-stricken Areas Rid of Backwardness

Poor areas have long suffered from weak infrastructure, inadequate public services, and social and economic underdevelopment. In the final stages of fighting poverty, China succeeded in raising all the rural poor out of extreme poverty and the impoverished areas achieved a big stride in economic and social development, taking on a brand new look.

Infrastructure has been improved. Lack of access to transport, electricity, drinking water and communications hinders the development of poverty-stricken areas. Infrastructure construction is a basic element in the battle against poverty; through an intensified effort and further investment, new infrastructure in poor areas boosted their social and economic development.

The construction, management, maintenance and operation of roads in rural areas have all seen significant improvement (Box 2). Transport networks now connect all villages with other local villages and with the outside world, and provide them with safe and easy access to bus services. By the end of 2020, impoverished areas had gained 1.1 million km of reconstructed highways and 35,000 km of new railways; all the villages, townships and towns in poverty-stricken areas with the right conditions were accessible by paved road and provided with bus and mail routes, which facilitated more economic development.

Water infrastructure in impoverished areas has been improved in many ways. Since 2016, the effective irrigated area has increased by more than 5.35 million ha and water supply capacity has increased by 18.1 billion cu m. Better water infrastructure is also a provider of strong support for the development of poverty-stricken areas.

Electricity access in poor areas has been improved through power grid construction projects such as power supply to areas without electricity, upgrading of rural power grids, and construction of trunk power grids and power transmission channels. Now, more remote areas are connected to power grids, and almost all rural areas enjoy a steady power supply (Box 3).

Communications infrastructure has been extended in poverty-stricken areas. Now, over 98% of poor villages have access to optical fiber communications (OFC) and 4G technology; distance education is available at more schools in impoverished areas; telemedicine and e-commerce cover all designated poor counties. All of this represents an unprecedented pace of development of IT application in poverty-stricken areas.

This comprehensive range of infrastructure improvements has resolved many historical problems trapping poor areas in poverty, facilitated the flows of personnel, logistics, knowledge and information between poor areas and the outside world, and provided solid support for social and economic development in impoverished areas.

Basic public services have been improved. In addition to providing adequate food, clothing and safe housing for the impoverished, China has intensified efforts to improve basic public services covering education, healthcare, culture and social security. The goal is to guarantee impoverished people access to education, medical services, elderly care and social assistance, so as to support development in poverty-stricken areas.

Since 2013, China has renovated 108,000 schools to strengthen the provision of compulsory education in poor areas, and ensured that all school-age rural children receive kindergarten and elementary education within their own villages.

Public cultural services in poor areas have also been improved. By the end of 2020, 99.48% of villages in 22 provinces and equivalent administrative units in central and western China had seen their own cultural centers completed. The campaign of bringing culture to the countryside has enriched the cultural life of the rural poor.

There has been a notable improvement in healthcare provision in poor areas. This program has remedied the shortfall in medical workers and institutions at village and township level. 98% of the designated poor counties now have at least one grade-two hospital. The county-level hospitals in impoverished areas can treat 90% of the diseases that general county-level hospitals can. The impoverished can now have common ailments and chronic diseases treated at nearby medical institutions in a timely manner, and more major illnesses can be effectively treated at county-level hospitals.

Comprehensive social security systems are now in place in poor areas. The standards of eligibility for rural subsistence allowances in designated poor counties are all higher than the national poverty threshold.

Some 19.36 million impoverished people have been covered by rural subsistence allowances or extreme poverty relief funds, and 60.98 million by basic pension schemes for rural and non-working urban residents, achieving nearly 100% coverage.

The economy has achieved sustained and rapid growth. The battle against poverty has released the potential of poor areas, and injected vigor into their economic development.

Poverty-stricken areas have seen notable improvements in their economic structure. Businesses that leverage local strengths have been growing and thriving, including such new forms as e-commerce, photovoltaic technology, and tourism. The economy in poor areas has diversified, and effective market supply has increased. These developments provide solid foundations for economic growth.

The GDP of impoverished areas has maintained rapid growth. Since 2015, the average annual increment in per capita revenue from the national general public budget has been seven percentage points higher than the national average. A steady increase in incomes has created higher demand for life quality and cultural activities. This has stimulated a surge in consumption in rural areas, and provided support for the domestic economy.

Cultural heritage has been protected. China has strengthened the protection and promotion of traditional culture, folk culture and ethnic culture in poor areas to maintain a wealth of cultural diversity. It has implemented the Plan on the Revitalization of Traditional Chinese Craftsmanship to protect and develop fine craftsmanship in old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poverty-stricken areas. It has supported poor areas to develop cultural resources with local characteristics, including ethnic culture, revolutionary sites, folk culture, and intangible cultural heritage. Local governments in poor areas have developed tourism there by conserving and promoting these cultural resources and training support staff. China has paid attention to keeping a record of the experiences of ordinary people in poverty alleviation, such as archives of poor villages, films, TV programs and literary works themed on poverty alleviation. Through the protection and promotion of cultural heritage in poor areas, the impoverished have gained additional income while retaining their cultural roots.

The eco-environment has improved. China has integrated development-driven poverty alleviation with soil and water conservation and eco-environmental conservation. By developing the eco-economy, improving the rural living environment, and relocating the impoverished from inhospitable areas to places with better economic prospects, there have been remarkable improvements in the eco-environment of poverty-stricken areas. Lucid waters and lush mountains have become their invaluable assets. Through the fight against poverty, China has increased the incomes of the impoverished, improved the eco-environment of poor areas, and made the vast rural areas more livable spaces for their inhabitants.

Severely impoverished areas are the top priority in China's battle against poverty. The "three areas and three prefectures"[ The "three areas" refer to the Tibet Autonomous Region, the Hotan, Aksu, Kashgar prefectures and the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in southern Xinjiang, and prefectures and counties with large Tibetan populations in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai. The "three prefectures" refer to the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province, the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province, and the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province. ] in extreme poverty have seen notable improvements in infrastructure, public services, and civil communal behavior, as well as rapid development in industries and businesses that leverage local strengths. All of these efforts have brought an end to regional and overall poverty (Box 4).

(三)脱贫群众精神风貌焕然一新

脱贫攻坚既是一场深刻的物质革命,也是一场深刻的思想革命;既取得了物质上的累累硕果,也取得了精神上的累累硕果。贫困群众的精神世界在脱贫攻坚中得到充实和升华,信心更坚、脑子更活、心气更足,发生了从内而外的深刻改变。

脱贫致富热情高涨。脱贫攻坚不仅使贫困群众拓宽了增收渠道、增加了收入,而且唤醒了贫困群众对美好生活的追求,极大提振和重塑了贫困群众自力更生、自强不息,勤劳致富、勤俭持家,创业干事、创优争先的精气神,增强了脱贫致富的信心和劲头。“好日子是干出来的”,贫困群众比着把日子往好里过,依靠自己的辛勤劳动摆脱贫困,形成了你追我赶奔小康的浓厚氛围。

主人翁意识显著提升。脱贫攻坚为贫困群众参与集体事务搭建了新的平台。扶贫项目实施、资金使用等村级重大事项决策,实行“四议两公开”,建立健全村务监督机制,推广村民议事会、扶贫理事会等制度,让村民做到“大家的事大家议、大家办”,拓展了贫困群众参与脱贫攻坚的议事管事空间,提高了参与集体事务的积极性自觉性,激发了建设家乡的热情,乡村发展的凝聚力大大增强。

现代观念不断增强。脱贫攻坚打开了贫困地区通往外部世界的大门。交通基础设施的改善打通了贫困地区与外界的联系,公共文化事业的发展丰富了贫困群众的精神文化生活,网络的普及让贫困群众增长了见识、开阔了视野。贫困群众的开放意识、创新意识、科技意识、规则意识、市场意识等显著增强,脱贫致富的点子越来越多、路子越来越宽。

文明新风广泛弘扬。深化贫困地区文明村镇和文明家庭、“五好”家庭创建,持续推进新时代文明实践中心建设,发挥村规民约作用,推广道德评议会、红白理事会等做法,开展移风易俗行动,开展弘扬好家风、“星级文明户”评选、寻找“最美家庭”等活动,社会主义核心价值观广泛传播,贫困地区文明程度显著提升。俭朴节约、绿色环保、讲究卫生等科学、健康、文明的生活方式成为贫困群众的新追求,婚事新办、丧事简办、孝亲敬老、邻里和睦、扶危济困、扶弱助残等社会风尚广泛弘扬,既有乡土气息又有现代时尚的新时代乡村文明新风正在形成。

3. Those Who Have Been Lifted Out of Poverty Adopt a New Mindset

The battle against poverty is a profound revolution and complete victory on both material and theoretical level. Through this battle, the mindset of the poor has been enriched and sublimed – they have greater confidence, more active minds, and higher aspirations; they have experienced a thorough transformation from the inside to the outside.

The impoverished have a deep desire to rid themselves of the shackles of poverty and achieve prosperity. The poverty relief efforts have not only widened channels for the impoverished to improve their material welfare but rekindled their desire to seek a better life as well. Impoverished people have been inspired to seek prosperity through hard work, self-reliance, frugality and entrepreneurship, and strive for excellence. They are highly motivated and have more confidence about getting rid of poverty. As the Chinese people always say, "Good days come after hard work". They are ready to compete in the race to prosperity.

The impoverished have a stronger sense of self-reliance. The poverty alleviation work has set up a new platform for the impoverished to participate in collective affairs. When making major decisions on the implementation of poverty relief projects and the use of funds at the village level, villagers have carried out a "4+2" system[ "4+2" system refers to the democratic policy-making process on village affairs under the leadership of village Party organizations. "4" means four steps: Proposals should be put forward by the Party branch, jointly discussed by the village committee and the Party branch, and deliberated by Party members, and resolutions should be adopted by villagers' representatives; "2" means transparency on two levels – resolutions and implementation results should be made known to the public. ]. The oversight mechanisms for village affairs and villagers' councils and poverty relief councils have been improved to ensure that public affairs are discussed and handled by everyone. Under these arrangements, the impoverished have participated more in the decision making and implementation process in the battle against poverty. They have been more motivated to participate actively in collective affairs, more enthusiastic to build up their hometown, and more cohesive to develop the countryside.

The impoverished have been constantly upgrading their mindsets. The battle against poverty has opened the door to the outside world for poverty-stricken areas. Improvements in transport infrastructure have established links between poor areas and the outside world; development of public cultural undertakings has enriched the cultural life of impoverished people; with better access to the internet, the poor have greater knowledge, broader horizons, and a deeper understanding of openness, innovation, technology, rules and markets. They are capable of generating more ideas and opening wider channels for poverty alleviation.

Cultural and ethical work has been advancing in impoverished regions. Civility villages and towns are being built in poverty-stricken areas, and civil families cultivated under the "Five Family Virtues" program (encouraging respect for the law, diligent study, family planning, domestic harmony, and industrious and thrifty management of the household). Social etiquette, village rules, agreements among villagers, and councils on moral issues, weddings and funerals have been promoted, to update outmoded and undesirable habits and customs. Activities, such as competition for best households and families, have been organized to carry forward cherished family traditions, spread core socialist values, and enhance social etiquette and civility. Scientific, healthy and civilized new ways of life which are simple, green, eco-friendly, and hygienic have been embraced by the villagers. Good social practices, including modest weddings and funerals, filial piety, harmonious neighborhoods, and helping the needy, the weak and the disabled, have been promoted. In the new era, new cultural practices with a local and modern essence are developing in rural areas.

(四)特殊困难群体生存发展权利有效保障

中国高度重视妇女、儿童、老人和残疾人等群体中特殊困难人员的生存和发展,采取特殊政策,加大帮扶力度,特殊困难群体的福利水平持续提高,生存权利充分保障,发展机会明显增多。

贫困妇女生存发展状况显著改善。坚持男女平等基本国策,将妇女作为重点扶贫对象,实现脱贫的近1亿贫困人口中妇女约占一半。实施《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》,把缓解妇女贫困程度、减少贫困妇女数量放在优先位置,扶贫政策、资金、措施优先向贫困妇女倾斜,帮助贫困妇女解决最困难最忧虑最急迫的问题。累计对1021万名贫困妇女和妇女骨干进行各类技能培训,500多万名贫困妇女通过手工、种植养殖、家政、电商等增收脱贫。累计发放妇女小额担保贷款和扶贫小额信贷4500多亿元,870万名妇女通过小额担保贷款和扶贫小额信贷实现创业增收。19.2万名贫困患病妇女获得救助,妇女宫颈癌、乳腺癌免费检查项目在贫困地区实现全覆盖。通过“母亲水窖”“母亲健康快车”“母亲邮包”等公益项目,投入公益资金41.7亿元,惠及贫困妇女5000余万人次。

困境儿童关爱水平明显提高。实施《中国儿童发展纲要(2011-2020年)》《国家贫困地区儿童发展规划(2014-2020年)》,对儿童教育和健康实施全过程保障和干预。开展儿童营养知识宣传和健康教育,实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,提高贫困地区儿童健康水平,为集中连片特困地区6-24月龄婴幼儿每天免费提供1包辅食营养补充品,截至2020年底,累计1120万儿童受益。实施出生缺陷干预救助项目,为先天性结构畸形、部分遗传代谢病和地中海贫血贫困患病儿童提供医疗费用补助,累计救助患儿4.1万名,拨付救助金4.7亿元。组织各类志愿者与孤儿、农村留守儿童、困境儿童结对,开展关爱帮扶,覆盖儿童和家长2519.2万人次。建立儿童之家28万余所、儿童快乐家园1200余个,为留守、困境儿童提供文体娱乐、心理疏导、生活照顾、家教指导等关爱服务。大幅提高孤儿保障水平,机构集中养育孤儿和社会散居孤儿平均保障标准分别达到每人每月1611.3元和1184.3元。实施孤儿医疗康复明天计划项目,累计投入17亿元、惠及22.3万名病残孤儿。实施福彩梦圆孤儿助学工程,累计投入5.4亿元、惠及在校就读孤儿5.4万人次。建立事实无人抚养儿童保障制度,25.3万名事实无人抚养儿童参照当地孤儿保障标准纳入保障范围。

贫困老年人生活和服务保障显著改善。持续提高农村养老金待遇和贫困老年人口医疗保障水平,农村老年人口贫困问题进一步解决。经济困难的高龄、失能等老年人补贴制度全面建立,惠及3689万老年人。实施老年健康西部行项目,在西部贫困地区开展老年健康宣传教育,组织医务人员、志愿者开展义诊和健康指导服务,促进西部老年人健康素养和健康水平提高。建立农村留守老年人关爱服务制度,推动贫困老年人医疗保障从救治为主向健康服务为主转变。加强失能贫困老年人关爱照护,全面开展核查,确认62.7万失能贫困老年人,落实家庭医生签约服务59万人,失能贫困老年人健康状况明显改善。

贫困残疾人保障水平全面提升。700多万贫困残疾人如期脱贫,创造了人类减贫史上残疾人特殊困难群体消除贫困的奇迹。困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度惠及2400多万残疾人。1066.7万残疾人纳入最低生活保障。贫困残疾人全部纳入基本医疗保险、大病保险,54.7万贫困残疾人得到医疗救助。178.5万户贫困残疾人家庭住房安全问题得到解决。贫困残疾人的特殊需求得到更好保障,8万余名家庭经济困难的残疾儿童接受普惠性学前教育。65.3万户贫困重度残疾人家庭完成无障碍改造,贫困重度残疾人照护服务创新实践取得显著成效。

4. Protecting the Rights of Special Groups to Basic Needs and Development

China prioritizes the basic rights of subsistence and development of the disadvantaged groups among women, children, the elderly, and the disabled. The nation has enacted favorable policies and provided more assistance to raise the welfare level of these groups.

Living conditions of impoverished women have been improving. China adheres to the fundamental national policy of gender equality, and sees women as a key target in poverty alleviation. Among nearly 100 million who have shaken off poverty, women account for half. By implementing the Outline of Women's Development in China (2011-2020), China has given priority to helping women alleviate poverty and reducing the number of women in poverty, given preferential treatment to women when making poverty alleviation policies, allocated funds and taken measures, and helped them solve the most difficult, most worrying and most pressing problems. A total of 10.21 million impoverished women have received skills training, over 5 million of whom have increased their incomes through activities such as handicrafts, crop and animal husbandry, housekeeping and e-business. Small-sum guaranteed loans and micro credit amounting to more than RMB450 billion have been provided to impoverished women, which have helped 8.7 million women to start businesses and increase their incomes. China has assisted 192,000 women who suffer from poverty and diseases and launched a program of free cervical and breast cancer checkups to cover all women in poverty-stricken areas. RMB4.17 billion has been invested in titled campaigns to provide 50 million impoverished mothers in impoverished areas with infrastructure and health benefits, as well as daily necessities.

Extending greater care to deprived children. China has implemented the Outline on the Development of Chinese Children (2011-2020) and the National Development Plan for Children in Poor Areas (2014-2020) to provide security for children's education and health and deliver interventions when required. Efforts have been made to popularize knowledge on children's nutrition and health. Following the implementation of nutritional improvement projects for children in impoverished areas, children in these regions now enjoy better health. The government gives a free daily pack of nutritional dietary supplements to every baby and toddler aged 6-24 months in contiguous destitute areas. By the end of 2020, a total of 11.2 million children in those areas had benefitted from this project. Birth defect prevention & relief programs have been launched to help cover medical expenses for children who suffer from poverty and serious diseases such as congenital malformations, some inherited metabolic disorders, and thalassemia. A total of RMB470 million has been allocated for the care of 41,000 sick children. China has organized volunteers to pair up with orphans, deprived children, and children of migrant workers left at home in the countryside, providing care and help to 25.19 million children and parents. More than 280,000 children's homes and over 1,200 children's happy homes have been built to give entertainment, psychological counseling, life care and tutoring to deprived children and children of migrant workers left at home in the countryside. China continues to improve the protection of orphans' rights and interests, with monthly allowance for orphans in welfare institutions and families that provide temporary care totaling RMB1,611 and RMB1,184 per person respectively. China has invested RMB1.7 billion in the Tomorrow Plan for Rehabilitation of Handicapped Orphans to offer operations and rehabilitation to 223,000 orphans with disabilities. RMB540 million from the public welfare has been used to carry out a program to support school education for 54,000 orphans. A support system for de facto orphans has been established in China to cover 253,000 such children.

Continuing to provide services and improve the lives of impoverished senior citizens. China has raised the amount of basic pension in rural areas and subsidies for basic medical insurance for poor seniors to further reduce poverty among the elderly in rural areas. The subsidy system for the poor population of advanced age and incapacitated seniors has been put in place, benefiting 36.89 million people. The government has initiated a program for the elderly in the western regions to promote health awareness among seniors in poverty-stricken areas, and organized medical workers and volunteers to provide free medical services and offer advice on health matters. China has developed a system to support and care for elderly people left behind by their families in the countryside after their grown-up children have moved to the cities in search of employment. It has shifted the focus of medical security for the impoverished elderly from medical treatment to health services. More care has been provided for incapacitated seniors living below the poverty line. On the basis of an overall inspection, China has verified 627,000 impoverished seniors who lost the ability to take care of themselves and extended contracted family doctor services to 590,000 of them, significantly improving their health.

Strengthening the protection of impoverished people with disabilities in an all-round way. More than 7 million poor people with disabilities have been lifted out of poverty as scheduled. This is a historic achievement in poverty alleviation among groups with special difficulties. The systems for providing living allowances for poor people with disabilities and nursing subsidies for severely disabled persons cover more than 24 million. China includes 10.67 million people with disabilities in the system of subsistence allowances. Poor people with disabilities are now all covered by basic medical insurance and serious illness insurance. Among them, 547,000 people have received medical assistance. China has made efforts to ensure 1.79 million poor households with one or more disabled members live in secure housing. The special needs of impoverished people with disabilities are being met. More than 80,000 disadvantaged children with disabilities have received generally beneficiary pre-school education. The houses of 653,000 impoverished households with severely disabled members have been upgraded for better accessibility. New progress has been made in nursing care for poor and severely disabled people.

(五)贫困地区基层治理能力显著提升

脱贫攻坚是国家治理体系和治理能力现代化在贫困治理领域的成功实践。打赢脱贫攻坚战,促进了国家贫困治理体系的完善,贫困地区基层治理体系进一步健全、治理能力显著提升。

农村基层党组织更加坚强。农村基层党组织是中国共产党在农村全部工作和战斗力的基础,是贯彻落实扶贫工作决策部署的战斗堡垒。坚持抓党建促脱贫攻坚、抓扶贫先强班子,整顿软弱涣散基层党组织,精准选派贫困村党组织第一书记、驻村工作队,把农村致富能手、退役军人、外出务工经商返乡人员、农民合作社负责人、大学生村官等群体中具有奉献精神、吃苦耐劳、勇于创新的优秀党员选配到村党组织书记岗位上,基层党组织的战斗堡垒作用不断增强,凝聚力战斗力号召力明显提高,党群干群关系更加密切,贫困地区群众对党和政府的信赖、信任、信心进一步增强,党在农村的执政基础更加牢固。

基层群众自治更加有效。脱贫攻坚有力推动了贫困地区基层民主政治建设,基层治理更具活力。村委会(居委会)作用更好发挥,贫困群众自我管理、自我教育、自我服务、自我监督不断加强。认真落实村(居)务公开,坚持重大问题民主决策。坚持群众的事由群众商量着办,群众的事由群众定,群众参与基层治理的积极性主动性创造性进一步增强。脱贫攻坚之初,很多贫困村几乎没有集体经济收入,到2020年底全国贫困村的村均集体经济收入超过12万元。稳定的集体经济收入改变了很多村级组织过去没钱办事的困境,增强了村级组织自我保障和服务群众的能力。

懂农业、爱农村、爱农民的“三农”工作队伍不断壮大。2013年以来,全国累计选派300多万名第一书记和驻村干部开展精准帮扶。广大基层干部和扶贫干部心系贫困群众、甘愿牺牲奉献,满腔热情地为贫困群众办实事、解难题,赢得了贫困群众发自内心的认可。在脱贫攻坚的艰苦磨砺中,广大基层干部和扶贫干部坚韧、乐观、充满奋斗精神,带领群众脱贫致富的信心更加坚定、本领进一步增强。大批教育、科技、医疗卫生、文化等领域的专业人才支援贫困地区建设,大批企业家到贫困地区投资兴业,很多高校毕业生放弃城市的优厚待遇回到农村建设家乡。变富变美的农村吸引力不断增强,大批热爱农村、扎根农村、建设农村的人才留下来,为农业农村现代化继续贡献力量。

社会治理水平明显提升。脱贫攻坚为贫困地区带来了先进发展理念、现代科技手段、科学管理模式,显著提升了贫困地区的社会治理水平。脱贫攻坚行之有效的制度体系和方法手段,为基层社会治理探索了新路径,促进了网格化管理、精细化服务、信息化支撑、开放共享的基层管理服务体系的建立和完善,社会治理的社会化、法治化、智能化、专业化水平进一步提升,基层社会矛盾预防和化解能力显著增强,贫困地区社会更加和谐、稳定、有序。

脱贫攻坚战取得全面胜利,创造了中国减贫史乃至人类减贫史上的伟大奇迹,极大增强了中华民族的自信心自豪感和凝聚力向心力,极大增强了中国人民的道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,极大增强了中国人民创造更加美好生活的信心和底气。这一伟大胜利,彰显了中国共产党始终坚守的初心使命和强大政治领导力、思想引领力、群众组织力、社会号召力,彰显了中国特色社会主义制度集中力量办大事的优势,彰显了中国精神、中国价值、中国力量,彰显了中国人民为实现梦想拼搏奋斗、敢教日月换新天的意志品质,彰显了中华民族无所畏惧、不屈不挠、敢于斗争、坚决战胜前进道路上一切困难和挑战的精神品格。脱贫攻坚伟大实践锻造形成“上下同心、尽锐出战、精准务实、开拓创新、攻坚克难、不负人民”的脱贫攻坚精神,赓续传承了伟大民族精神和时代精神,将激励中国人民为创造美好未来继续奋斗。

5. Significantly Improving Grassroots Social Governance in Poverty-stricken Areas

The fight against poverty is a successful exercise in the modernization of China's system and capacity for governance. Our success in this battle has improved our poverty governance, and significantly improved China's systems and capacity for grassroots social governance in impoverished areas.

Stronger grassroots Party organizations in rural areas. Grassroots Party organizations are the cornerstone of the CPC's rural work, playing a key role in ensuring that decisions and plans on poverty alleviation are implemented. China has strengthened the leading group to win this battle against poverty. Weak and slack grassroots Party organizations have been rectified and consolidated, and first Party secretaries and resident working teams are carefully selected and dispatched to poverty-stricken villages. We select a range of people as village leaders to hold the post of secretary of village Party organizations – hard-working, dedicated, and innovative Party members from those who have lifted themselves out of poverty in rural areas, veterans, returning migrant workers and business people, heads of farmer cooperatives, and college graduates. Village Party branches perform a decisive role in this battle, and continue to enhance their cohesion and skills. With closer relations between the villagers and village officials, and between the Party and the people, people in poverty-stricken areas have greater trust and confidence in the Party and the government, laying solid foundations for the Party's governance in rural areas.

Grassroots governance is becoming more effective. Grassroots democracy has advanced in poverty-stricken areas as a result of the battle against poverty, inspiring vitality in local communities. Villagers and residents committees are more actively involved, while the poor are able to do more in improving their own management, education, services and supervision. Village affairs have become more transparent, so that villagers can discuss and direct their own affairs and engage in democratic decision-making on issues of importance. The public are becoming increasingly active and are breaking new ground in grassroots governance. At the beginning of poverty alleviation, many poor villages had little collective income. By the end of 2020, the average collective income in impoverished villages across the country had exceeded RMB120,000. With a steady collective income, many village organizations have become more capable of keeping operations running and serving the people.

Increasing the number of rural service personnel who have a good knowledge of agriculture, love our rural areas, and care about rural people. Since 2013, more than 3 million first Party secretaries and resident working team members have been selected and dispatched to carry out targeted poverty alleviation. Officials working at the grassroots and poverty relief officials always concern themselves first and foremost with the interests of the poor. They dedicate themselves to practical actions and solving tough problems for the poor, and thereby win public approval. Going through hardships in the battle against poverty, persistent, optimistic, hard-working grassroots officials and poverty relief officials have become more confident in motivating people to shake off poverty and more capable of doing it. A large number of professionals and entrepreneurs in fields such as education, science and technology, healthcare and culture have gone to poverty-stricken regions to aid construction and make investments. Many college graduates have resisted the temptation of much better pay and benefits in cities to go back and help their hometowns in rural areas. Becoming more prosperous and attractive, rural areas are better able to attract and retain talented professionals who love the countryside, encouraging them to take roots and assist with agricultural and rural modernization.

Notable progress made in strengthening China's capacity for social governance. China's poverty relief efforts have brought advanced concepts of development, modern technology, and scientific management models to impoverished areas, significantly improving social governance. In the process, China has explored new ways in grassroots social governance, and put in place an open and information-based grassroots system to provide a gridded management model and better services for everyone. All these have strengthened public participation and rule of law in social governance, and made it smarter and more specialized, improving the ability of the grassroots to prevent and resolve conflicts, and helping maintain harmony, stability and order in impoverished areas.

Our complete victory over extreme poverty is an outstanding achievement in the history of both China and humanity. It has reinforced the Chinese nation's self-belief and its sense of pride, cohesiveness and affinity. It has strengthened the people's confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and given them trust in their ability to build a better life. This great victory shows that the CPC has held fast to its original aspiration and mission, and demonstrates its ability to lead politically, to guide through theory, to organize the people, and to inspire society. It shows the strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics in pooling resources to solve major problems. It highlights China's spirit, China's values, China's strength, and the willpower of the Chinese people to strive to realize dreams with bold resolve which dares to make sun and moon shine in new skies. It exemplifies the fearless and indomitable character of the Chinese nation, determined to struggle and resolutely overcome all difficulties and challenges along the way. A will to unite as one, do our best, set targets, adopt a pragmatic approach, be pioneers, innovate, tackle tough issues head-on, and live up to our people's trust, has formed in the great endeavors of poverty alleviation. It has fostered a Chinese ethos and a readiness to respond to the call of our times, and will continue to inspire our people to create a better future.

三、实施精准扶贫方略

对于贫困人口规模庞大的国家,找准贫困人口、实施扶真贫是普遍性难题。脱贫攻坚贵在精准、重在精准,成败之举在于精准。中国在脱贫攻坚实践中,积极借鉴国际经验,紧密结合中国实际,创造性地提出并实施精准扶贫方略,做到扶持对象、项目安排、资金使用、措施到户、因村派人、脱贫成效“六个精准”,实施发展生产、易地搬迁、生态补偿、发展教育、社会保障兜底“五个一批”,解决好扶持谁、谁来扶、怎么扶、如何退、如何稳“五个问题”,增强了脱贫攻坚的目标针对性,提升了脱贫攻坚的整体效能。


III. The Strategy of Targeted Poverty Alleviation


Identifying those truly in need is a universal problem in countries with a large population in poverty. Accurate identification of the poor and targeted measures is central to any effort to eradicate poverty. In its poverty elimination effort, China has actively learned from international experience, fully considered its actual conditions, and launched a series of guidelines and measures to increase efficiency, summarized as accomplishing "Targeted Efforts in Six Areas"[ This refers to efforts to identify the poor accurately, arrange targeted programs, utilize capital efficiently, take household-based measures, dispatch first Party secretaries based on village conditions, and achieve the set goals.], taking "Five Measures for Poverty Eradication"[ The measures include: boosting the economy to provide more job opportunities, relocating poor people from inhospitable areas, compensating for economic losses associated with reducing ecological damage, improving education in impoverished areas, and providing subsistence allowances for those unable to shake off poverty through their own efforts alone. ], and addressing "Five Questions in Poverty Alleviation"[ This refers to these questions: who should help, who should be helped, how to help, how to evaluate whether someone has emerged from poverty, and how to ensure those people stay free from poverty. ].

(一)精准识别、建档立卡,解决“扶持谁”的问题

扶贫必先识贫。中国贫困人口规模大、结构复杂,实现精准扶贫首先要精准识贫。科学制定贫困识别的标准和程序,组织基层干部进村入户,摸清贫困人口分布、致贫原因、帮扶需求等情况。贫困户识别以农户收入为基本依据,综合考虑住房、教育、健康等情况,通过农户申请、民主评议、公示公告、逐级审核的方式,进行整户识别;贫困村识别综合考虑行政村贫困发生率、村民人均纯收入和村集体经济收入等情况,按照村委会申请、乡政府审核公示、县级审定公告等程序确定。对识别出的贫困村和贫困人口建档立卡,建立起全国统一的扶贫信息系统。组织开展“回头看”,实行动态管理,及时剔除识别不准人口、补录新识别人口,提高识别准确率。建档立卡在中国扶贫史上第一次实现贫困信息精准到村到户到人,精确瞄准了脱贫攻坚的对象,第一次逐户分析致贫原因和脱贫需求,第一次构建起国家扶贫信息平台,为实施精准扶贫精准脱贫提供了有力的数据支撑。

1. Identifying People in Need to Know Whom to Help

To help the poor, we must know who they are. China had a large poor population, which was complex in composition. China has developed a set of standards and procedures to accurately identify the poor, and grassroots officials have spent time in villages analyzing the distribution of the poor population, the causes of their poverty, and their needs. Poor households are identified primarily based on their incomes, with consideration given to other factors such as housing, education and health. Household applications for poverty registration are discussed and reviewed, disclosed for public supervision, and then evaluated by each level of administration. For administrative villages applying to be registered, consideration is given to the incidence of poverty, the per capita net income of the villagers, and income from businesses run by village collectives. Applications are filed by the village committee, reviewed and disclosed by the township government, and examined by the county government before the results are made public. The individuals and villages confirmed as poor are then registered and a file is created in the national poverty alleviation information system. Dynamic management of the poor population has been strengthened to remove those who have been wrongly identified and to add those newly identified, with an emphasis on accuracy. Through this registration system, for the first time in the history of poverty alleviation, China has identified every poor individual in every village, every poor household has the causes of their poverty and their needs registered with the government. The national information platform on poverty alleviation provides powerful IT support for targeted measures to realize the set goals.

(二)加强领导、建强队伍,解决“谁来扶”的问题

脱贫攻坚涉及面广、要素繁多、极其复杂,需要强有力的组织领导和贯彻执行。充分发挥党的政治优势、组织优势,建立中央统筹、省负总责、市县抓落实的脱贫攻坚管理体制和片为重点、工作到村、扶贫到户的工作机制,构建起横向到边、纵向到底的工作体系。各级党委充分发挥总揽全局、协调各方的作用,执行脱贫攻坚一把手负责制,中西部22个省份党政主要负责同志向中央签署责任书、立下军令状,省市县乡村五级书记一起抓。脱贫攻坚期内,贫困县党委政府正职保持稳定。有脱贫任务的地区,倒排工期、落实责任,抓紧施工、强力推进。脱贫攻坚任务重的地区,把脱贫攻坚作为头等大事和第一民生工程,以脱贫攻坚统揽经济社会发展全局。实行最严格的考核评估和监督检查,组织脱贫攻坚专项巡视,开展扶贫领域腐败和作风问题专项治理,加强脱贫攻坚督导和监察,确保扶贫工作务实、脱贫过程扎实、脱贫结果真实,使脱贫攻坚成果经得起实践和历史检验。建立健全干部担当作为的激励和保护机制,加大关心关爱干部力度,树立正确用人导向,引导广大干部在决胜脱贫攻坚中奋发有为、履职尽责。加强基层扶贫队伍建设,普遍建立干部驻村帮扶工作队制度,按照因村派人、精准选派的原则,选派政治素质好、工作能力强、作风实的干部驻村扶贫。广大驻村干部牢记使命、不负重托,心系贫困群众,扎根基层扶贫一线,倾心倾力帮助贫困群众找出路、谋发展、早脱贫。从2013年开始向贫困村选派第一书记和驻村工作队,到2015年,实现每个贫困村都有驻村工作队、每个贫困户都有帮扶责任人。截至2020年底,全国累计选派25.5万个驻村工作队、300多万名第一书记和驻村干部,同近200万名乡镇干部和数百万村干部一道奋战在扶贫一线。

2. Strengthening Leadership and Team-building to Know How to Offer Help

Poverty eradication work covers a wide range of areas and is extremely complex, thus requiring rigorous organization, leadership, and implementation. Relying on the CPC's political and organizational strength, China has established a poverty eradication management network with the central government acting as coordinator, provincial governments taking overall responsibility, and city and county governments overseeing implementation. The network covers all poor areas and officials are sent to villages to help every needy household. Party committees at all levels have assumed an overall coordinating role and assigned top officials to take charge of poverty eradication affairs. The leading officials of 22 provinces and equivalent administrative units in central and western China signed written pledges to the Party Central Committee, and Party secretaries at the five administrative levels of province, city, county, township and village have worked towards the same goal. During the poverty eradication campaign, Party committee secretaries and county governors have been required to remain unchanged in their posts. Areas tasked with poverty elimination worked out timetables with a clear division of responsibilities and pressed forward with implementation. In places where the work was particularly difficult, the fight against poverty became the top priority of social and economic development. Through the strictest possible evaluation and supervision, as well as specialized inspection tours, China has addressed any corruption and misconduct in poverty alleviation with rigor (Box 5), and strengthened the evaluation and supervision of results to ensure solid and authentic outcomes (Box 6) that can survive the test of time and practice. China has improved the incentives for encouraging officials to fulfill responsibilities and undertake initiatives, and the relevant mechanisms to protect their position. By giving more attention to and caring for officials and establishing the right approach to their selection and appointment, the government has given them the incentive to fulfill their duties and do their best in the final fight against poverty. China has strengthened its team of grassroots officials working in poverty alleviation, and formed resident working teams to assign officials to villages where they could be most useful. Officials on the resident working teams must be politically reliable and professional, and have a can-do approach to their work. Officials on these teams have dedicated themselves to their mission and fulfilled their duties, committing themselves to helping those in need on the front line of fighting poverty, and giving their all to help the poor find ways to emerge from poverty and seek development. The first group of first secretaries and resident working teams were dispatched to poor villages in 2013. By 2015, all poor villages had resident working teams, and every poor household a contact official in charge of poverty elimination. As of the end of 2020, 255,000 resident teams and more than 3 million officials had been dispatched as first secretaries and resident officials to poor villages, fighting on the front line of poverty alleviation alongside nearly 2 million township officials and millions of village officials.

(三)区分类别、靶向施策,解决“怎么扶”的问题

贫困的类型和原因千差万别,开对“药方子”才能拔掉“穷根子”。中国在减贫实践中,针对不同情况分类施策、对症下药,因人因地施策,因贫困原因施策,因贫困类型施策,通过实施“五个一批”实现精准扶贫。

发展生产脱贫一批。发展产业是脱贫致富最直接、最有效的办法,也是增强贫困地区造血功能、帮助贫困群众就地就业的长远之计。支持和引导贫困地区因地制宜发展特色产业,鼓励支持电商扶贫、光伏扶贫、旅游扶贫等新业态新产业发展,依托东西部扶贫协作推进食品加工、服装制造等劳动密集型产业梯度转移,一大批特色优势产业初具规模,增强了贫困地区经济发展动能。累计建成各类产业基地超过30万个,形成了特色鲜明、带贫面广的扶贫主导产业,打造特色农产品品牌1.2万个。发展市级以上龙头企业1.44万家、农民合作社71.9万家,72.6%的贫困户与新型农业经营主体建立了紧密型的利益联结关系。产业帮扶政策覆盖98.9%的贫困户,有劳动能力和意愿的贫困群众基本都参与到产业扶贫之中。扎实推进科技扶贫,建立科技帮扶结对7.7万个,选派科技特派员28.98万名,投入资金200多亿元,实施各级各类科技项目3.76万个,推广应用先进实用技术、新品种5万余项,支持贫困地区建成创新创业平台1290个。为贫困户提供扶贫小额信贷支持,培育贫困村创业致富带头人,建立完善带贫机制,鼓励和带领贫困群众发展产业增收致富。

易地搬迁脱贫一批。对生活在自然环境恶劣、生存条件极差、自然灾害频发地区,很难实现就地脱贫的贫困人口,实施易地扶贫搬迁。充分尊重群众意愿,坚持符合条件和群众自愿原则,加强思想引导,不搞强迫命令。全面摸排搬迁对象,精心制定搬迁规划,合理确定搬迁规模,有计划有步骤稳妥实施。960多万生活在“一方水土养不好一方人”地区的贫困人口通过易地搬迁实现脱贫。对搬迁后的旧宅基地实行复垦复绿,改善迁出区生态环境。加强安置点配套设施和产业园区、扶贫车间等建设,积极为搬迁人口创造就业机会,保障他们有稳定的收入,同当地群众享受同等的基本公共服务,确保搬得出、稳得住、逐步能致富。

生态补偿脱贫一批。践行“绿水青山就是金山银山”理念,坚持脱贫攻坚与生态保护并重,在加大贫困地区生态保护修复力度的同时,增加重点生态功能区转移支付,不断扩大政策实施范围,让有劳动能力的贫困群众就地转为护林员等生态保护人员。2013年以来,贫困地区实施退耕还林还草7450万亩,选聘110多万贫困群众担任生态护林员,建立2.3万个扶贫造林(种草)专业合作社(队)。贫困群众积极参与国土绿化、退耕还林还草等生态工程建设和森林、草原、湿地等生态系统保护修复工作,发展木本油料等经济林种植及森林旅游,不仅拓宽了增收渠道,也明显改善了贫困地区生态环境,实现了“双赢”。

发展教育脱贫一批。坚持再穷不能穷教育、再穷不能穷孩子,加强教育扶贫,不让孩子输在起跑线上,努力让每个孩子都有人生出彩的机会,阻断贫困代际传递。持续提升贫困地区学校、学位、师资、资助等保障能力,20多万名义务教育阶段的贫困家庭辍学学生全部返校就读,全面实现适龄少年儿童义务教育有保障。实施定向招生、学生就业、职教脱贫等倾斜政策,帮助800多万贫困家庭初高中毕业生接受职业教育培训、514万名贫困家庭学生接受高等教育,重点高校定向招收农村和贫困地区学生70多万人,拓宽贫困学生纵向流动渠道。开展民族地区农村教师和青壮年农牧民国家通用语言文字培训,累计培训350万余人次,提升民族地区贫困人口就业能力。“学前学会普通话”行动先后在四川省凉山彝族自治州和乐山市马边彝族自治县、峨边彝族自治县、金口河区开展试点,覆盖43万学龄前儿童,帮助他们学会普通话。

社会保障兜底一批。聚焦特殊贫困群体,落实兜底保障政策。实施特困人员供养服务设施改造提升工程,集中供养能力显著增强。农村低保制度与扶贫政策有效衔接,全国农村低保标准从2012年每人每年2068元提高到2020年5962元,提高188.3%。扶贫部门与民政部门定期开展数据比对、摸排核实,实现贫困人口“应保尽保”。

中国还结合实际、因地制宜,采取其他多渠道多元化扶贫措施。大力推进就业扶贫,通过免费开展职业技能培训、东西部扶贫协作劳务输出、扶贫车间和扶贫龙头企业吸纳、返乡创业带动、扶贫公益性岗位安置等形式,支持有劳动能力的贫困人口在本地或外出务工、创业,贫困劳动力务工规模从2015年的1227万人增加到2020年的3243万人。开展健康扶贫工程,把健康扶贫作为脱贫攻坚重要举措,防止因病致贫返贫。深入实施网络扶贫工程,支持贫困地区特别是“三区三州”等深度贫困地区,完善网络覆盖,推进“互联网+”扶贫模式。实施资产收益扶贫,把中央财政专项扶贫资金和其他涉农资金投入设施农业、光伏、乡村旅游等项目形成的资产,折股量化到贫困村,推动产业发展,增加群众收入,破解村集体经济收入难题。2020年新冠肺炎疫情发生后,中国采取一系列应对疫情的帮扶举措,加大就业稳岗力度,开展消费扶贫行动,有效克服了新冠肺炎疫情影响。

3. Applying Targeted Measures for Different Groups to Know How to Help

There are many different types of poverty and the causes vary from case to case. We cannot address the root cause without the right remedies. In practice, China has adopted categorized and targeted measures to reduce poverty, based on the situation of individual households, local conditions, and the causes for and types of poverty. These targeted measures include: boosting the economy to provide more job opportunities, relocating poor people from inhospitable areas, compensating for economic losses associated with reducing ecological damage, improving education in impoverished areas, and providing subsistence allowances for those unable to shake off poverty through their own efforts alone.

First, boosting the economy to provide more job opportunities. Poverty alleviation through economic development is the most direct and effective method, the fundamental way to give poor areas the capacity for independent development and help the poor find employment locally. With this in mind, China has supported and guided poor areas in developing economic activities geared to their available resources, and encouraged poverty alleviation through new forms of business and new industries such as e-commerce, photovoltaic (PV) power generation and tourism, and through the consumption of products and services from poor areas (Box 7). Relying on collaboration on poverty alleviation between the eastern and western regions, China has facilitated the transfer of food processing, clothes manufacturing, and other labor-intensive industries from the east to the west. With the growth of such specialty industries, poor areas have gained economic momentum. More than 300,000 industrial bases have been built, leading to the creation of new industries with distinctive features and greater capacity to facilitate poverty alleviation efforts. China has created 12,000 local agroproduct brands, 14,400 leading enterprises above the city level, and 719,000 rural cooperatives operated by farmers. A total of 72.6% of poor households have formed close ties with new types of agribusiness entities, and almost every poor household has been covered by policy support for boosting the economy. Almost all poor people with the ability and intention to work have joined the collective endeavor. Solid progress has been made in poverty alleviation through the development of science and technology. A total of 1,290 innovative platforms and business startups have been set up, and 77,000 people have been paired up with professionals to receive guidance on new technology in impoverished regions. With a team of 289,800 technicians and a fund of over RMB20 billion, China has launched 37,600 high-tech programs of all kinds and at all levels and introduced more than 50,000 advanced applied technologies and new, improved breeds. Poor households have received financial support such as small loans (Box 8). In poor villages, entrepreneurial individuals have been encouraged to start businesses and given support to help and lead others out of poverty.

Second, relocating poor people from inhospitable areas. Some people lived in uninhabitable areas suffering from harsh natural conditions and subject to frequent natural disasters. It would be very hard for them to shake off poverty if they remained where they were, so the government relocated them to other areas (Box 9). The government respected these people's wishes, and only relocated those who were eligible and agreed to move. The reasons for relocation were explained to them but no coercion was used. The conditions and needs of target relocation groups were given full consideration, the scale of relocation was determined through research, and feasible plans were worked out and implemented in steps. As a result, more than 9.6 million people from inhospitable areas have shaken off poverty through relocation. Their former homes have been turned into farmland or planted with trees, to improve the eco-environment in these areas. In the resettlement sites, support facilities, industrial parks, and workshops have been built to create jobs for the relocated population, to ensure that they have stable incomes and equitable access to basic public services. Measures have been taken to ensure smooth relocation and resettlement, and make sure that those involved have the means to better themselves.

Third, shaking off poverty through compensations for economic losses associated with reducing ecological damage and getting eco-jobs. Clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets. Laying equal emphasis on poverty alleviation and eco-conservation, China has strengthened ecological restoration and environmental protection in poor areas, increased government transfer payments to key eco-areas, and expanded the scope of those eligible for preferential policies. Poor people with the ability to work have thus been employed in eco-work, for example as forest rangers. Since 2013, a total of 4.97 million ha of farmland in poor areas has been returned to forest and grassland. A total of 1.1 million poor people have become forest rangers, and 23,000 poverty alleviation afforestation cooperatives/teams have been formed. By participating in projects for afforestation, turning reclaimed farmlands into forests or grasslands, restoring and protecting forests, grasslands and wetlands, and growing woody oil plants and working in forest tourism, the poor population have increased their incomes and made a major contribution to improving the eco-environment in poor areas, with mutually beneficial results.

Fourth, improving education in impoverished areas. Through education, poverty can be prevented from passing down from generation to generation (Box 10). The government has continued to increase support for schools in poor areas to improve their conditions, standard of teaching, faculties and financial resources. The state ensures compulsory education for all school-age children. All the 200,000 dropouts from compulsory education coming from poor families have returned to school. Favorable policies have been leveraged to enroll more poor students from designated areas, expand employment for graduates, and help students shake off poverty through vocational education. More than 8 million middle and high school graduates from poor families have received vocational training, 5.14 million poor students have received higher education, and key institutions of higher learning have admitted some 700,000 students from designated rural and poor areas. All this has opened up more channels for poor students to emerge from poverty and move upwards in society. The government has offered training on standard spoken and written Chinese language to 3.5 million rural teachers and young farmers and herdsmen in ethnic minority areas, in an effort to make poor people from these areas more competitive in the job market. A pilot campaign has been launched to teach standard Chinese to preschool children in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, and Mabian Yi Autonomous County, Ebian Yi Autonomous County and Jinkouhe District in Leshan City, Sichuan Province, involving 430,000 children.

Fifth, providing subsistence allowances for those unable to shake off poverty through their own efforts alone. China focuses on the needs of the most vulnerable groups and provides them with subsistence allowances. Services and facilities to support people living in extreme poverty have been upgraded, with a greater capacity to provide care in service centers. The rural subsistence allowances framework has been effectively dovetailed with poverty alleviation policies, and the per capita yearly subsistence allowances in rural areas had grown from RMB2,068 in 2012 to RMB5,962 in 2020, an increase of 188.3%. The departments in charge of poverty alleviation and civil affairs compare data and verify information on a regular basis, to ensure full coverage of support for eligible groups.

China has also implemented many other forms of support for poverty alleviation that are consistent with local conditions. The government has redoubled its efforts to boost employment for the poor, through means such as offering free training on vocational skills, strengthening collaboration in the labor market between the eastern and western regions, supporting leading enterprises and workshops in poverty alleviation to create more jobs, encouraging entrepreneurial individuals to start businesses in their hometowns or villages, and creating public welfare jobs for the rest of the unemployed. Poor people who have the ability to work are encouraged to find employment locally or elsewhere, or start their own businesses. In 2015, 12.27 million poor laborers found employment; the figure had risen to 32.43 million in 2020. China has made efforts to improve healthcare service to the poor, considering it an important part of poverty alleviation in order to prevent the poor from sinking back into poverty due to illness (Box 11). China has launched a project to connect poor areas to the internet, introducing the "internet+" model for poverty alleviation in poor areas, especially in the extremely impoverished "three areas and three prefectures". The earnings from poverty alleviation funds and assets have been used to support the poor. The assets generated from facility agriculture – agriculture making extensive use of polytents and other similar equipment – PV power stations, and rural tourism using central government funds for poverty alleviation and other agriculture-related funds have been converted into shares and allocated proportionately to poor villages in order to give a boost to businesses, increase villagers' incomes and more importantly help solve the problem of generating revenue for the villages' collective economy. Since Covid-19 struck in 2020, China has adopted a series of support measures, such as measures to stabilize employment and encourage consumption of products from poor areas, effectively minimizing the impact of the virus.

(四)严格标准、有序退出,解决“如何退”的问题

建立贫困退出机制,明确贫困县、贫困村、贫困人口退出的标准和程序,既防止数字脱贫、虚假脱贫等“被脱贫”,也防止达到标准不愿退出等“该退不退”。制定脱贫摘帽规划和年度减贫计划,确保规范合理有序退出。严格执行退出标准,严格规范工作流程,贫困人口退出实行民主评议,贫困村、贫困县退出进行审核审查,退出结果公示公告,让群众参与评价,做到程序公开、数据准确、档案完整、结果公正。强化监督检查,每年委托第三方对摘帽县和脱贫人口进行专项评估,重点抽选条件较差、基础薄弱的偏远地区,重点评估脱贫人口退出准确率、摘帽县贫困发生率、群众帮扶满意度,确保退出结果真实。2020年至2021年初,开展国家脱贫攻坚普查,全面准确摸清贫困人口脱贫实现情况。贫困人口、贫困村、贫困县退出后,在一定时期内原有扶持政策保持不变,摘帽不摘责任,摘帽不摘帮扶,摘帽不摘政策,摘帽不摘监管,留出缓冲期,确保稳定脱贫。

4. Adopting Strict Criteria to Know When and How to Deregister Those Who Have Emerged from Poverty

A poverty exit mechanism has been established, with clear provisions on the standards and procedures for deregistering from the list poor counties, villages, and individuals. This prevents misconduct such as manipulation and falsification of data, and also prevents those who have emerged from poverty from keeping the label in order to continue accessing preferential treatment. The government has worked out a poverty deregistration plan and an annual poverty alleviation plan to ensure procedure-based, rational and orderly exit from the registers. The criteria and procedures have been strictly enforced, for example, by conducting public review in the case of individuals and government examination in the case of villages and counties. The results of poverty exit have been disclosed for public evaluation and review, based on transparent procedures, accurate data and complete files, to ensure fairness. Supervision and inspection have been strengthened, including annual evaluations by third parties of the deregistered population and counties, with a focus on remote areas with weaker economic foundations. Three parameters – the accuracy of decisions, the poverty incidence of recurrence among deregistered counties, and public rating of assistance measures – are emphasized in evaluation, to ensure accurate results. From 2020 to early 2021, China conducted a general survey of poverty elimination, collecting accurate data on progress in helping the poor out of poverty. A "grace period" is allowed for previously impoverished population, villages and counties, during which time poverty alleviation policies and government supervision are continued until their status is secure.

(五)跟踪监测、防止返贫,解决“如何稳”的问题

稳定脱贫不返贫才是真脱贫。对脱贫县,从脱贫之日起设立5年过渡期,过渡期内保持主要帮扶政策总体稳定,对现有帮扶政策逐项分类优化调整,逐步由集中资源支持脱贫攻坚向全面推进乡村振兴平稳过渡。健全防止返贫动态监测和帮扶机制,对脱贫不稳定户、边缘易致贫户,以及因病因灾因意外事故等刚性支出较大或收入大幅缩减导致基本生活出现严重困难户,开展定期检查、动态管理,做到早发现、早干预、早帮扶,防止返贫和产生新的贫困。继续支持脱贫地区乡村特色产业发展壮大,持续促进脱贫人口稳定就业。做好易地搬迁后续扶持,多渠道促进就业,强化社会管理,促进社会融入,确保搬迁群众稳得住、有就业、逐步能致富。坚持和完善驻村第一书记和工作队、东西部协作、对口支援、社会帮扶等制度。继续加强扶志扶智,激励和引导脱贫群众靠自己努力过上更好生活。开展巩固脱贫成果后评估工作,压紧压实各级党委和政府责任,坚决守住不发生规模性返贫的底线。

精准扶贫方略,是中国打赢脱贫攻坚战的制胜法宝,是中国减贫理论和实践的重大创新,体现了中国共产党一切从实际出发、遵循事物发展规律的科学态度,面对新矛盾新问题大胆闯、大胆试的创新勇气,对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的不懈探索,对实现人的全面发展和全体人民共同富裕的远大追求。精准扶贫方略,不仅确保了脱贫攻坚取得全面胜利,而且有力提升了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化水平,丰富和发展了新时代中国共产党执政理念和治国方略。

5. Conducting Follow-up Monitoring to Help People Stay Out of Poverty

People and locations will only be considered to have shaken off poverty when they have stayed out of it and have not fallen back in after a certain period. Counties have been given a five-year period of grace from the day they emerged from poverty. During this period they will continue to enjoy the main support policies, which will be adjusted and optimized by category. Over time the resources leveraged for intensive poverty elimination will be redirected towards an extensive drive for rural revitalization. China will improve its dynamic monitoring of any trends indicating a return to poverty, and improve associated support measures. It will regularly check on key groups, such as those who have just emerged from poverty but whose position is far from secure, those on the verge of poverty who can fall back in again easily, and those experiencing difficulties in meeting their basic needs due to expenditure induced by illness, disaster or accident, or due to a sharp drop in income, and exercise dynamic management to spot these trends early and intervene through support measures, so that these people do not fall back into poverty. China will continue to support formerly impoverished areas in developing their specialty industries and help those who have emerged from poverty have stable employment. Follow-up support will be given to the resettled population whose employment will be promoted through multiple means. The government will improve social management to help them integrate into society, so that they will stay out of poverty, remain employed and have a promising future. Systems and practices that have proven effective, such as resident first secretaries and working teams, eastern-western collaboration, paired-up assistance, and social assistance, will be continued and improved. Efforts will be intensified to help those who have emerged from poverty build up self-belief and have access to education, so that they can create a better life through their own hard work. More evaluation will be carried out over the status of formerly impoverished people and areas, and Party committees and governments at all levels will continue to take responsibility to ensure that people do not sink back into poverty in large numbers.

The strategy of targeted poverty alleviation is China's strongest weapon in its final battle to secure victory against poverty, and a major innovation in the theory and practice of poverty alleviation. It highlights the CPC's sound approach whereby all actions are based on actual conditions and conform to the needs of development; it is a manifestation of its courage to face up to new challenges and find solutions through trial and error; of its tireless exploration of the characteristics of governance by the CPC, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society; and of its pursuit of all-round development of the people and common prosperity for all. In addition to securing a sweeping victory in the final battle against poverty, the strategy has also given a powerful boost to modernizing China's national governance system and capacity, and to enriching and developing the CPC's guiding philosophies and governance strategies in the new era.


四、为人类减贫探索新的路径

消除贫困是全球性难题。各国国情不同、所处发展阶段不同,减贫标准、方式方法、路径手段也不同。中国减贫立足本国国情,深刻把握中国贫困特点和贫困治理规律,坚持中国共产党的领导,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持发挥中国社会主义制度集中力量办大事的政治优势,坚持精准扶贫方略,坚持调动广大贫困群众积极性、主动性、创造性,坚持弘扬和衷共济、团结互助美德,坚持求真务实、较真碰硬,走出了一条中国特色减贫道路,形成了中国特色反贫困理论。中国在减贫实践中探索形成的宝贵经验,既属于中国也属于世界,拓展了人类反贫困思路,为人类减贫探索了新的路径。


IV. Exploring a New Path of Poverty Alleviation


Eliminating poverty is a challenge for all countries. Each subject to different national conditions and at different stages of development, they adopt different poverty reduction criteria, methods and approaches. Bearing in mind its prevailing reality and understanding the nature of poverty and the status of poverty alleviation, China has embarked on a path of poverty alleviation and designed an approach with Chinese characteristics. In this battle, the nation has upheld the CPC leadership and the people-centered philosophy. It has taken advantage of one of the strengths of its socialist system – the ability to pool resources on major endeavors. It has adopted targeted measures and stimulated the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the people in poverty. It has carried forward the great tradition of working together and offering mutual support, and it has adopted a down-to-earth and pragmatic style of work. In this approach, China has accumulated valuable experience, which belongs both to China itself and to the rest of the world, and offers enlightenment to the international community in its battle to reduce poverty.

(一)坚持以人民为中心

中国共产党是有远大抱负的政党。中国共产党的奋斗目标,既很宏伟也很朴素,归根结底是让全体人民过上好日子。100年来,不管国际国内形势如何变化,中国共产党始终把人民放在心中最高位置,始终坚守为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴的初心使命,以坚定不移的信念和意志,团结带领人民与贫困作斗争。进入新时代,中国共产党坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,采取一系列超常规政策举措推进脱贫攻坚,努力让贫困群众有更好的收入、更好的教育、更好的医疗卫生服务、更好的居住条件。把群众满意度作为衡量脱贫成效的重要尺度,集中力量解决贫困群众基本民生需求,宁可少上几个大项目,也要优先保障脱贫攻坚资金投入;宁可牺牲一些当前利益、局部利益,也要服从和服务于减贫工作大局;宁可经济增速慢一些,也要确保脱贫攻坚目标任务如期完成。在脱贫攻坚没有硝烟的战场上,广大党员、干部以热血赴使命、以行动践诺言,用自己的辛劳换来贫困群众的幸福。驻村第一书记和工作队员扎根一线、任劳任怨,基层党员干部呕心沥血、苦干实干,广大志愿者真情投入、倾力奉献。他们有的长期奋战在扶贫一线,舍小家为大家,付出很大牺牲;有的为群众脱贫四处奔波,爬山涉险,不辞劳苦;有的常年加班加点,积劳成疾;有的为扶贫工作负伤,仍然带病坚持工作。脱贫攻坚以来,1800多名党员、干部为减贫事业献出了宝贵生命,用实际行动践行了为人民牺牲一切的誓言。新时代脱贫攻坚实践,深刻诠释了以人民为中心的理念,是中国共产党全心全意为人民服务的宗旨在新时代最集中、最充分、最生动的体现。

中国减贫实践表明,贫困问题本质上是对人民的根本态度问题,以人民为中心是扶贫减贫的根本动力。真正把人民放在心上,真正把人民利益放在第一位,才能真正识贫、扶贫、脱贫,减贫才会有不竭动力、明确方向和好的办法。

1. People-centered Philosophy

The CPC is an ambitious party with a grand but simple goal: to ensure a happy life for the Chinese people. In the face of all the changes in the international landscape and the domestic situation over the past century, the Party has always followed a people-centered philosophy. It has borne in mind its founding mission to seek happiness for the Chinese people and national rejuvenation, and united and led the people in fighting poverty armed with firm convictions and a strong will. In the new era, the CPC has adopted a series of bold policies and measures to advance the cause, trying to ensure higher incomes and better education, healthcare, and living conditions for the poor. Taking public satisfaction as an important yardstick to judge the effectiveness of poverty elimination, the Party has concentrated its efforts on guaranteeing the basic needs of the poor. It would rather cut down on the number of major projects in favor of investment in poverty elimination; it would rather penalize short-term, partial or local interests to ensure the cause is well served and guaranteed; and it would rather slow the pace of economic growth to ensure the task of poverty alleviation is accomplished on schedule.

In the fight against poverty, officials including first Party secretaries and resident working teams, grassroots officials and Party members, and volunteers have worked with diligence and a spirit of dedication in support of the poor, fulfilling their mission and their pledge to the people. Some of them have been fighting on the front line for a long time, without time or energy to take care of their own families; some have been traveling around or braving harsh natural conditions; some have fallen sick from overwork all the year round; some have continued work even after getting injured at work. More than 1,800 Party members and officials have lost their lives in the cause of poverty alleviation.

China's poverty elimination effort in the new era is a full and vivid expression of its people-centered philosophy and the CPC's mission of serving the people wholeheartedly. Success in poverty alleviation has proven that the problem of poverty, in essence, is how the people should be treated: the people-centered philosophy is the fundamental driving force behind this cause. Only with this philosophy, can a country identify those who are poor, adopt concrete measures, and deliver genuine outcomes; only with this philosophy, can it draw on inexhaustible motivation, set a clear direction, and find the right approach.

(二)把减贫摆在治国理政突出位置

贫困地区发展条件差,贫困人口自我发展能力弱,消除贫困仅仅依靠个体、区域、民间等力量远远不够,必须作为执政党和国家的责任,上升为国家意志、国家战略、国家行动。中国共产党始终把消除贫困作为定国安邦的重要任务,制定实施一个时期党的路线方针政策、提出国家中长期发展规划建议,都把减贫作为重要内容,从国家层面部署,运用国家力量推进。几代中国共产党人,锚定一个目标,一茬接着一茬干。中共十八大以来,中国共产党把脱贫攻坚摆在治国理政的突出位置,加强党的集中统一领导,统筹谋划、强力推进。从党的领袖到广大党员干部,情系贫困群众、心怀减贫大业,全党目标一致、上下同心。加强顶层设计和战略规划,制定印发《关于打赢脱贫攻坚战的决定》《关于打赢脱贫攻坚战三年行动的指导意见》等政策文件,明确目标、路径和具体措施并一以贯之抓下去。各级财政不断加大投入力度,构建多元资金投入体系,为减贫事业发展提供资金保障。发挥社会主义制度集中力量办大事的优势,广泛动员各方力量积极参与。建立脱贫攻坚责任体系、政策体系、组织体系、投入体系、动员体系、监督体系、考核评估体系等制度体系,为脱贫攻坚顺利推进提供了有力支撑。

中国减贫实践表明,治国之道,富民为始;民之贫富,国之责任。减贫是一项具有开拓性的艰巨工作,实现减贫目标,领导人的情怀、意志和决心至关重要,执政党和国家担负起对人民的责任、发挥主导作用、汇聚各方力量至关重要,保持政策的连续性和稳定性至关重要。

2. Highlighting Poverty Alleviation in the Governance of China

Poor conditions for development in impoverished areas and a lack of capacity for self-improvement among the poor population determine that poverty cannot be eliminated by relying solely on the efforts of individuals, local governments, or non-governmental forces. Poverty elimination must be taken on as a responsibility of the ruling party and the country; it requires will and action at national level, and it must be elevated to a national strategy.

The CPC has always regarded poverty alleviation as an important task for ensuring national peace and stability. It has highlighted poverty alleviation at national level when setting its guidelines, principles and policies, and when formulating national plans for medium- and long-term development. The Party has pooled national resources to advance this cause and motivated generations of its members to devote themselves to this cause.

Since the 18th National Congress in 2012, the CPC has prioritized poverty elimination in its governance, and planned and advanced this cause under its centralized and unified leadership. All Party members, from top leaders to the grassroots officials, are concerned about the poor and the cause of poverty alleviation, and work together towards the same goal.

China has strengthened top-level design and strategic planning. It has issued policy documents such as Decision on Winning the Battle Against Extreme Poverty and Guidelines on the Three-Year Action Plan to Win the Battle Against Extreme Poverty, setting specific aims, defining approaches and detailed measures, and carrying them out with consistent efforts. Investment has been increased by governments at all levels (Figure 4) and a multiple investment system has been established (Box 12), guaranteeing financial support for poverty alleviation. Leveraging the strength of its socialist system – the ability to pool resources on major endeavors – China has mobilized forces from all quarters to participate in poverty alleviation. Systems have been established, covering responsibilities, policies, organization, inputs, mobilization, supervision, assessment and evaluation, and many other aspects of poverty elimination, providing an institutional guarantee for the nation to advance the battle against poverty.

The success in poverty alleviation has proven that governance of a country starts with the needs of the people, and that their prosperity is the responsibility of the government. Poverty alleviation is a pioneering and arduous trek. To achieve success, it is of utmost importance that the leadership have devotion, strong will and determination, and the ruling party and government assume their responsibilities to the people, play a leading role, mobilize forces from all quarters, and ensure policies are consistent and stable.

(三)用发展的办法消除贫困

贫困问题说到底是发展问题。作为拥有14亿人口、世界上最大的发展中国家,发展是解决包括贫困问题在内的中国所有问题的关键。中国共产党始终把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务,集中精力搞建设、谋发展,通过发展解决不平衡不充分问题,创造了经济快速发展奇迹和社会长期稳定奇迹。把改革作为消除贫困的重要推动力,从新中国成立后进行土地改革、建立社会主义制度,到改革开放后实行家庭联产承包责任制,到确立社会主义市场经济体制、全面免除农业税,再到中共十八大以来实行农村承包地所有权、承包权、经营权“三权分置”和推进农村集体产权制度改革,不断消除导致贫困的制度性、结构性因素,不断促进农村发展、农民增收。积极顺应全球化潮流,坚定不移扩大对外开放,对外贸易持续快速增长,为广大农村劳动力创造了大量就业岗位、拓宽了增收渠道。新中国成立以来特别是改革开放以来,中国经济社会快速发展,经济总量不断跃升,综合实力显著提升,既对减贫形成了强大的带动效应,也为大规模扶贫开发奠定了坚实基础、提供了有力保障。

中国减贫实践表明,发展是消除贫困最有效的办法、创造幸福生活最稳定的途径。唯有发展,才能为经济社会发展和民生改善提供科学路径和持久动力;唯有发展,才能更好保障人民的基本权利;唯有发展,才能不断满足人民对美好生活的热切向往。

3. Eradicating Poverty Through Development

The root cause of poverty is inadequate development. As the world's largest developing country with a population of 1.4 billion, China is aware that development is essential to solving many of its problems, including poverty. The CPC has always regarded this as the top priority in governing and rejuvenating the country. It has concentrated its efforts in particular on the economy, to address the problem of unbalanced and inadequate development. Through development, the economy has been growing rapidly and the country has enjoyed a long period of social stability. China has regarded reform as an important driving force for poverty eradication and worked constantly to remove institutional and structural causes of poverty:

• By launching land reform and establishing the socialist system after the founding of the PRC in 1949;

• By implementing the household contract responsibility system with remuneration linked to output after the launch of reform and opening up in 1978;

• By establishing the socialist market economy and rescinding all agricultural taxes;

• By separating the ownership rights, contracting rights, and management rights for contracted rural land and further reforming the rural collective property rights system since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012.

These measures have contributed to rural development and increased farmers' incomes. In addition, China has opened wider to the world amidst economic globalization and seen sustained and rapid growth in its foreign trade, creating many employment opportunities and more sources of higher incomes for rural labor.

Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, and especially since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, the country has witnessed rapid economic and social development, with the economy and national strength growing steadily. This has provided solid support for large-scale development-driven poverty alleviation effort.

China's experience with poverty alleviation has proven that development is the most effective way to eradicate poverty and the most reliable path towards a more prosperous life. Only development can lead to economic growth, social progress and higher living standards. Only development can better guarantee people's basic rights and meet their desire for a better life.

(四)立足实际推进减贫进程

贫困问题具有多样性和复杂性,致贫原因也呈现差异性和多元性。中国立足本国国情,根据不同发展阶段和经济社会发展水平,根据贫困人口规模、分布、结构等的变化,科学制定减贫标准、目标、方略,不断创新减贫理念、方法、手段,循序渐进、持续用力、滴水穿石。新中国成立后,主要是通过社会制度变革和大规模社会主义建设减缓贫困。改革开放以来,主要是通过农村经济体制改革和经济增长带动减贫,重点采取开发式扶贫方针,引导贫困地区和贫困群众以市场为导向,调整经济结构,开发当地资源,发展商品生产,提高自我积累、自我发展能力。进入新时代,在继续坚持开发式扶贫的同时,实施精准扶贫方略,扶贫路径由“大水漫灌”转为“精准滴灌”,资源使用方式由多头分散转为统筹集中,扶贫模式由偏重“输血”转为注重“造血”,考评体系由侧重考核地区生产总值转为主要考核脱贫成效。中国根据经济社会发展和减贫事业推进的实际,逐步调整提高扶贫标准,让发展成果更多更好惠及人民群众。

中国减贫实践表明,贫困的发生演变有其自身特点和规律,贫困治理必须从实际出发,科学研判制约减贫和发展的瓶颈因素,找准释放减贫动力的突破口,因时因势因地制宜,不断调整创新减贫的策略方略和政策工具,提高贫困治理效能。

4. Pressing Ahead with Poverty Alleviation Based on Reality

Poverty problems, as well as their causes, are diverse and complex. China's poverty alleviation efforts are based on a realistic appraisal of the situation. China has set its poverty line and its poverty alleviation goals and strategies, and worked to create better ideas and methods based on its national conditions and stage of development, and on the changes in the demographics, distribution, and structure of the poor population. It has advanced this undertaking step by step and with a steady effort.

Immediately after its founding in 1949, the PRC addressed the problem of poverty mainly through reform of the social system and large-scale economic development. After the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, China drove poverty alleviation mainly through rural economic reform and economic growth. It adopted development-oriented measures, guiding people in impoverished areas to increase their capacity for accumulation of wealth and endogenous development by adjusting the local economic structure, tapping into local resources, and developing production in response to market demand. In the new era, China has continued previous measures, and at the same time carried out a strategy of targeted poverty alleviation. The approach has changed from generalized broad-brush policies to targeted measures based on specific conditions. Before, resources for poverty alleviation came from multiple sources and were used by scattering them among the impoverished areas; now they are concentrated and better coordinated. The model of poverty alleviation has changed from mainly relying on external support like a blood transfusion to a more sustained effort from self-motivation. The assessment system has shifted focus from regional GDP as the main indicator to the genuine result of poverty alleviation. China has gradually lifted its poverty line based on its economic and social advances and progress in the cause of poverty alleviation to share the fruits of development with more people.

The occurrence and evolution of poverty has its own features and trends. To achieve success in reducing poverty, a country must follow a path in line with its national conditions, identify and remove obstacles to poverty alleviation, find driving forces for this cause, and constantly adjust and reform its strategies and policies as circumstances and local conditions change.


(五)发挥贫困群众主体作用

贫困群众是脱贫致富的主体。扶贫减贫既要借助外力,更要激发内力,才能形成合力。中国充分尊重、积极发挥贫困群众主体作用,激发培育贫困群众内生动力,增强参与发展、共享发展、自主发展的能力,使贫困群众不仅成为减贫的受益者,也成为发展的贡献者。坚持扶贫与扶志扶智相结合,既富口袋,更富脑袋,让贫困群众既有脱贫致富的想法,又有脱贫致富的办法。依托农民夜校、新时代讲习所等,加强教育培训,提升贫困群众发展生产和务工经商的基本技能。改进扶贫方式,建立正向激励、比学赶超的有效机制,更多采用生产奖补、劳务补助、以工代赈等方式,激励贫困群众依靠劳动创造幸福。大力宣传自强不息、奋斗脱贫的先进典型,广泛开展生动活泼、形式多样的宣传教育,引导贫困群众树立“宁愿苦干、不愿苦熬”的观念,用双手改变贫困落后面貌。

中国减贫实践表明,人民是历史的创造者、推动者,是顶天立地的真正英雄。只要坚持为了人民、依靠人民,尊重人民主体地位和首创精神,激励贫困群众自力更生、艰苦奋斗的内生动力,就一定能够战胜贫困。

5. Letting the Poor Play the Principal Role

Poor people are the main players in eliminating poverty. Poverty alleviation requires both external and internal forces to form a synergy. China fully respects the principal role of the poor and encourages them to play their part, inspires them with the motivation to fight poverty, and enhances their ability to participate in development, share the fruits of development, and achieve endogenous development. They benefit from success in the undertaking of poverty alleviation and at the same time contribute to development in China.

China has inspired its people in poverty to strive for prosperity and provided them necessary education, so that they have the ambition to emerge from poverty and the tools to succeed. People in poverty have had better access to education opportunities, such as farmers' night schools and training workshops, to improve their skills and abilities in work and business.

A significant improvement in the battle against poverty is an effective mechanism of positive incentives encouraging the poor to learn from and keep pace with each other. Through this mechanism, productive activities are rewarded and subsidized and jobs instead of grants are provided, to encourage poor people to rely on their own efforts rather than wait for external assistance.

China has promoted stories of role models who escaped poverty through their hard work. It has also carried out various activities to establish the idea that "It is better to work hard than to endure poverty." The people in poverty have followed suit and eventually shaken off poverty and backwardness.

The fight against poverty shows that the people are the creators and drivers of history, and the true heroes. As long as a country serves the people, relies on them, respects their principal status and pioneering spirit, and motivates the poor to rely on their own hard work, it is sure to defeat poverty.


(六)汇聚各方力量形成强大合力

扶贫减贫是艰巨复杂的系统工程,需要调动各方积极参与。为打赢脱贫攻坚战,中国共产党依托严密组织体系和高效运行机制,广泛有效动员和凝聚各方力量,构建政府、社会、市场协同推进,专项扶贫、行业扶贫、社会扶贫互为补充的大扶贫格局,形成跨地区、跨部门、跨单位、全社会共同参与的多元主体的社会扶贫体系。加强东西部扶贫协作和对口支援,推动省市县各层面帮扶,促进人才、资金、技术向贫困地区流动,实现优势互补,缩小区域差距。积极开展定点扶贫,组织各级党政机关、人民团体、国有企事业单位和军队帮扶贫困县或贫困村。各民主党派、工商联和无党派人士充分发挥各自优势,为打赢脱贫攻坚战献智献力。积极推动各行各业发挥专业优势,开展产业扶贫、科技扶贫、教育扶贫、文化扶贫、健康扶贫、消费扶贫。广泛动员民营企业参与扶贫开发,引导市场开发能力强的主体进入资源开发潜力大的地区,实现互惠互利、共同发展。广泛动员社会组织、公民个人积极参与脱贫攻坚,开展扶贫公益活动。设立国家扶贫日,建立脱贫攻坚国家荣誉制度,表彰脱贫攻坚先进典型,营造了人人愿为、人人可为、人人能为的社会帮扶氛围。

中国减贫实践表明,只有动员和凝聚各方力量,引导全社会关爱贫困群众、关心减贫事业、投身脱贫行动,形成共同意志、共同行动,聚力攻坚克难,才能最终战胜贫困顽疾。

中国特色减贫道路,是中国人民在中国共产党的领导下,经过长期艰辛探索开创出来的一条成功道路。中国消除绝对贫困的成功实践和宝贵经验,深化了对人类减贫规律的认识,丰富发展了人类反贫困理论,提振了各国特别是广大发展中国家消除绝对贫困的信心,为其他国家选择适合自己的减贫发展道路提供了参考和借鉴,为破解现代国家治理难题、开辟人类社会发展更加光明的前景提供了中国方案。

6. Pooling All Resources to Create Synergy

Poverty alleviation is an arduous, complex, and systematic endeavor, requiring the active participation of all parties. In the fight against poverty, the CPC has mobilized and pooled all possible forces on the basis of its rigorous organizational system and efficient work mechanism. A large-scale poverty alleviation network has been established, with the government, society and the market working in coordination, and government-sponsored projects, sector-specific programs, and corporate and societal assistance supplementing each other. It is a framework with the full participation of multiple players from different regions, sectors, departments and businesses.

China has strengthened collaboration and paired assistance between the eastern and western regions (Box 13) at provincial, city and county levels to encourage the flow of talent, capital, and technology to poor areas so that they can complement each other and narrow the gaps between them.

Poverty alleviation assistance has been directed to designated targets. Party and government institutions, people's organizations, state-owned enterprises and public institutions, and the military have assisted poor counties or villages (Box 14).

Other political parties, federations of industry and commerce and prominent individuals without party affiliation have leveraged their strengths to contribute intellectual and material support.

Various industries have been encouraged to offer assistance with their professional advantages by launching sector-specific programs, providing technological support, improving education, cultural undertakings and healthcare, and boosting consumption.

Private enterprises have been urged to participate in development-driven poverty alleviation. Businesses skilled in resource extraction have been encouraged to enter regions with great resource potential, which benefit both the businesses and those regions (Box 15).

Social organizations and individual citizens have been mobilized to participate in poverty alleviation and related public benefit activities. China has designated a National Poverty Alleviation Day and established a national system to commend models in fighting poverty. All these measures have created an atmosphere where everyone who is interested can join in poverty alleviation.

China's experience has proven that only when a country mobilizes all sectors of society to unite with common purpose and act in unison, can poverty be finally defeated.

Under the CPC leadership, the Chinese people have created an approach to poverty alleviation with their own hard work. China's successful practice and valuable experience in eliminating extreme poverty have deepened human understanding of poverty alleviation trends, enriched and extended the theory of international poverty alleviation, and boosted the confidence of other countries, especially developing ones, in eradicating extreme poverty. They serve as reference for other countries to choose a suitable path of poverty alleviation, and offer China's approach to solving the problem of modern national governance and creating brighter prospects for social progress.


五、携手共建没有贫困共同发展的人类命运共同体

世界好,中国才能好;中国好,世界才更好。中国始终把自身命运与世界各国人民命运紧密相连,在致力于消除自身贫困的同时,积极参与国际减贫合作,做国际减贫事业的倡导者、推动者和贡献者,与各国携手共建没有贫困、共同发展的人类命运共同体。

V. A Global Community of Shared Future Free from Poverty


China will prosper only when the world prospers, and vice versa. The country has always closely linked its future with that of the rest of the world. While committed to eradicating its own poverty, China has actively participated in international cooperation on poverty alleviation, acted as an advocate, facilitator of and contributor to the international cause of poverty alleviation, and worked with other countries to build a global community of shared future that is free from poverty and pursues common prosperity.

(一)中国的减贫和发展加快全球减贫进程

100年来,在中国共产党领导下,中国人民从翻身解放到解决温饱、从基本小康到全面小康,中国以自己的发展为人类反贫困作出重大贡献。改革开放以来,按照现行贫困标准计算,中国7.7亿农村贫困人口摆脱贫困;按照世界银行国际贫困标准,中国减贫人口占同期全球减贫人口70%以上。在全球贫困状况依然严峻、一些国家贫富分化加剧的背景下,中国打赢脱贫攻坚战,提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标,显著缩小了世界贫困人口的版图,“为实现2030年可持续发展议程所描绘的更加美好和繁荣的世界作出了重要贡献”。作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国实现了快速发展与大规模减贫同步、经济转型与消除绝对贫困同步,如期全面完成脱贫攻坚目标任务,大大加快了全球减贫进程,谱写了人类反贫困历史新篇章。

1. China as a Facilitator of the Global Cause of Poverty Alleviation

Over the past 100 years, China has contributed to global poverty alleviation under the leadership of the CPC through its own development – from winning the people's liberation to meeting their basic needs, from ensuring them a moderately prosperous life to building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Since reform and opening up, more than 770 million of China's rural population living below the current poverty line have been raised from poverty, accounting for more than 70 percent of the global total over the same period according to the World Bank's international poverty standard. Against the backdrop of severe global poverty and a widening gap between the rich and the poor in some countries, China has won the battle against extreme poverty and achieved the poverty alleviation goal set on the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule. This has significantly reduced the world's poor population and made a significant contribution towards realizing a better and more prosperous world, as envisioned by the Agenda[ UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres extended congratulations to Chinese President Xi Jinping in February 2021 on the occasion of the announcement of China's success in the fight against extreme poverty. Noting this moment is a notable achievement and a significant contribution towards realizing a better and more prosperous world, as envisioned by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the secretary-general said, "This extraordinary result is a reason for hope and inspiration to the entire community of nations."]. As the largest developing country, China has achieved rapid development in step with large-scale poverty alleviation, and economic transformation in step with the elimination of extreme poverty. It has completed all poverty eradication targets and tasks on schedule, which, as a new chapter in the history of the fight against poverty, has greatly accelerated global poverty alleviation.

(二)国际社会对中国减贫提供支持和援助

新中国成立后,努力打破外部封锁,积极开展对外交流合作,争取国际社会支持。改革开放以来,中国与联合国发展系统和世界银行在扶贫领域开展广泛合作,同时接受部分发达国家提供的援助、实施减贫合作项目,不仅在资金投入、知识转移、技术援助等方面获得支持,而且学习借鉴国际社会先进的扶贫理念与方式方法,推动了中国减贫事业发展。中国先后与联合国开发计划署、世界银行等国际机构和组织合作,在部分贫困县实施外资扶贫项目,引进各种优惠贷款和无偿援助。国际减贫交流合作项目缓解了项目区贫困人口的贫困程度,推动了中国减贫的制度创新和管理水平提升,为项目区的可持续发展奠定了基础。对国际社会给予的宝贵支持和帮助,中国人民永远铭记在心。中华民族是懂得感恩、投桃报李的民族,中国始终在力所能及的范围内为其他国家减贫和发展提供支持。

2. International Support and Assistance

In the early years after the founding of the PRC, China made great efforts to break an external blockade and carry out international exchanges and cooperation in order to win the support of the international community. Since reform and opening up, China has conducted extensive cooperation with the UN development system and the World Bank in the field of poverty alleviation, while accepting assistance from some developed countries and carrying out cooperation projects. It has received support in financial input, knowledge transfer, and technical assistance, and learned from the advanced concepts and methods of the international community in poverty alleviation. All this has provided support to its poverty alleviation effort. In cooperation with the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and other international organizations, China has implemented foreign-funded poverty alleviation projects in some poverty-stricken counties, bringing in various forms of concessional loan and grant aid. These international poverty-alleviation exchange and cooperation projects have alleviated poverty, improved China's institutional innovation and management, and laid a foundation for sustainable development in the project areas. The Chinese people will always remember the valuable support and assistance received from the international community. The Chinese nation never forgets the help and generosity it receives, and always reciprocates with the same goodwill; China has always supported other countries in poverty alleviation and development to the full extent of its ability.


(三)中国积极开展国际减贫交流合作

中国积极参与全球贫困治理,不断深化减贫领域交流合作,推动建立以相互尊重、合作共赢为核心的新型国际减贫交流合作关系,携手增进各国人民福祉。

支持广大发展中国家减贫发展。新中国成立伊始,在国家百废待兴、财力紧张的情况下,即向有关国家提供援助,为发展中国家争取民族独立和解放、促进经济社会发展提供了支持。改革开放后,中国对外援助内容更加丰富、形式更加多样,促进了中国与其他发展中国家的共同发展。进入新时代,中国担负大国责任,推动对外援助向国际发展合作转型升级,为破解全球发展难题、落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程提出中国方案、贡献中国智慧、注入中国力量。习近平主席在多个国际重大场合宣布中国开展国际发展合作的一系列务实举措,已按期落实或正在按照进度有序推进。中国发起共建“一带一路”倡议,推动更大范围、更高水平、更深层次的区域经济社会发展合作,支持帮助相关国家更好实现减贫发展。据世界银行研究报告,共建“一带一路”将使相关国家760万人摆脱极端贫困、3200万人摆脱中度贫困。新中国成立70多年来,中国向亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲和加勒比地区、大洋洲和欧洲等地区160多个国家和国际组织提供多种形式的援助,减免有关国家债务,为广大发展中国家落实千年发展目标提供帮助。

实施惠及民生的国际减贫合作项目。在亚洲地区,中国与东盟国家共同开展乡村减贫推进计划,在老挝、柬埔寨、缅甸三国乡村基层社区实施“东亚减贫示范合作技术援助项目”。在非洲地区,中国为非洲国家援建水利基础设施、职业技术学校、社会保障住房等设施,打造农业合作示范区,推进实施中非菌草技术合作、中非友好医院建设、非洲疾控中心总部建设等项目。在南太平洋地区,中国推动落实对太平洋岛国无偿援助、优惠贷款等举措,开展基础设施建设和农业、医疗等技术合作援助项目。在拉美地区,援建农业技术示范中心,帮助受援国当地民众摆脱贫困。中国还与联合国教科文组织合作设立国际农村教育研究与培训中心等机构,面向非洲、东南亚等国家实施农村教育转型、教师培训等项目。

分享交流减贫经验。通过搭建平台、组织培训、智库交流等多种形式,开展减贫交流,分享减贫经验。在国际消除贫困日,中国与联合国驻华机构联合举办减贫与发展高层论坛活动。中国发起中国-东盟社会发展与减贫论坛、人类减贫经验国际论坛,举办中非减贫与发展会议、“摆脱贫困与政党的责任”国际理论研讨会、改革开放与中国扶贫国际论坛等一系列研讨交流活动。与东盟秘书处和东盟有关国家合作,面向基层村官(社区官员)实施“东盟+中日韩村官交流项目”。与有关国家和地区组织合作开展国际减贫培训,2012年以来,共举办130余期国际减贫培训班,来自116个国家(组织)的官员参加培训。

当今世界正处于百年未有之大变局,新冠肺炎疫情仍在全球蔓延,贫穷、饥饿、疾病侵蚀着人们追求美好生活的希望和信心。建设什么样的世界、人类文明走向何方,攸关每个国家、每个人的前途和命运。每个人都有过上好日子的权利。各国应担负起对人民的责任,积极推进减贫发展,让公平正义的阳光冲破贫困落后的阴霾,照亮繁荣发展的美好未来。中国愿同各国加强减贫交流合作,携手推进国际减贫进程,为构建没有贫困、共同发展的人类命运共同体作出更大贡献。


3. International Exchanges and Cooperation

To improve the wellbeing of all peoples, China has taken an active part in global poverty management, furthered exchanges and cooperation with other countries, and promoted a new model of international exchanges and cooperation on poverty alleviation, with mutual respect and mutually-beneficial cooperation at its core.

China has supported other developing countries in poverty alleviation. Immediately after the founding of the PRC, China began to provide assistance to other developing countries in support of their struggle for national independence and liberation and for economic and social development, despite the fact that China had to address its own difficulties with limited financial resources. Since reform and opening up, China's foreign aid approach has diversified, which has promoted the common development of China and other developing countries. Entering the new era, China has fulfilled its responsibilities as a major country and upgraded its foreign aid into international development cooperation, contributing its vision and approaches to the resolution of global development challenges and the implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. President Xi Jinping has announced on many major international occasions that China's practical measures for international development cooperation have been implemented on schedule or are progressing in an orderly manner (Box 16).

China has launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to expand deep and high-level regional cooperation on economic and social development, and to help eligible countries better achieve poverty alleviation. According to a World Bank study, the initiative will help 7.6 million people out of extreme poverty and 32 million out of moderate poverty in these countries. Over the past 70 years and more, China has provided assistance in various forms to over 160 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and Europe, and international organizations, reduced or exempted the debts of eligible countries, and helped developing countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

China has launched international poverty alleviation cooperation projects for the benefit of all. In Asia, China and ASEAN countries have jointly launched a rural poverty alleviation plan, and carried out the East Asia Poverty Reduction Demonstration Cooperation Technical Assistance Projects program in rural communities of Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar (Box 17). In Africa, China has helped African countries build water conservancy infrastructure, vocational and technical schools, government-subsidized housing, and other facilities, set up demonstration zones for agricultural cooperation, and carried out China-Africa cooperation projects involving a Chinese-invented technology using grass to grow mushrooms, China-Africa friendship hospitals, and the headquarters of the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Box 18). In the South Pacific region, China has promoted measures such as grant aid and concessional loans to Pacific island countries, and carried out technical cooperation assistance projects in infrastructure construction, agriculture, and medical care. In Latin America, China has built agricultural technology demonstration centers to help local people in recipient countries shake off poverty. China has also set up the International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education and other institutions in cooperation with UNESCO, and carried out projects on rural education transformation and teacher training for countries in Africa, Southeast Asia and other regions.

China has shared its experience on poverty reduction. It has carried out exchanges and cooperation in various forms, including building platforms, organizing training, and conducting think tank exchanges. Together with UN agencies in China, the Chinese government has convened sessions of the Global Poverty Reduction and Development Forum on the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty. China has initiated the China-ASEAN Forum on Social Development and Poverty Reduction, and the International Forum on Sharing Poverty Reduction Experience, and has hosted a series of discussion and exchange activities including the China-Africa Poverty Reduction and Development Conference, the International Seminar on Poverty Eradication and Responsibility of Political Parties, and the International Forum on Reform and Opening Up and Poverty Reduction in China. In cooperation with the ASEAN Secretariat and relevant ASEAN countries, China has launched the ASEAN Plus Three (China, Japan and the ROK) village official exchange program for grassroots village officials and community officials. China conducts international training on poverty reduction with relevant countries and regional organizations. Since 2012, it has held over 130 international training sessions, attended by officials from 116 countries and organizations.

The world today is experiencing a scale of change unseen in a century. The Covid-19 pandemic is still spreading around the world, and poverty, hunger and disease are undermining people's pursuit for a better life. The kind of world we should build and the future direction of human civilization, are issues that have a bearing on every country and every person. Everyone has the right to a decent life. All countries need to shoulder their responsibilities and work on poverty reduction, so that the sunshine of equity and justice can break through the haze of poverty and backwardness and illuminate a future of prosperity and development. China is ready to strengthen exchanges and cooperation with other countries on poverty reduction, support international poverty reduction, and make a greater contribution to building a global community of shared future that is free from poverty and blessed with common prosperity.


结束语


中国打赢脱贫攻坚战,如期实现脱贫攻坚目标任务,中国人民在创造美好生活、实现共同富裕的道路上迈出了坚实的一大步。同时,中国仍是世界上最大的发展中国家,仍面临人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。解决发展不平衡不充分问题、缩小城乡区域发展差距、实现人的全面发展和全体人民共同富裕,仍然任重道远。

脱贫摘帽不是终点,而是新生活、新奋斗的起点。中国共产党将始终坚守为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴的初心和使命,始终把人民放在最高位置,为实现人的全面发展和全体人民共同富裕驰而不息、接续奋斗,不断增进人民福祉,更好满足人民对美好生活的新期待,让全体人民过上好日子。

民族要复兴,乡村必振兴。打赢脱贫攻坚战之后,中国将持续巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果,做好同乡村振兴有效衔接,实现“三农”工作重心的历史性转移。中国将立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局,把解决好“三农”问题作为重中之重,坚持农业农村优先发展,走中国特色社会主义乡村振兴道路,以更有力的举措、汇聚更强大的力量全面推进乡村振兴。

到2035年,中国将基本实现社会主义现代化,乡村振兴取得决定性进展,农业农村现代化基本实现。那时的中国乡村,农业结构得到根本性改善,农民就业质量显著提高,相对贫困进一步缓解,共同富裕迈出坚实步伐;城乡基本公共服务均等化基本实现,城乡融合发展体制机制更加完善;乡风文明达到新高度,乡村治理体系更加完善;农村生态环境根本好转,美丽宜居乡村基本实现。

到2050年,中国将全面建成社会主义现代化强国,实现第二个百年奋斗目标,乡村全面振兴。那时的中国乡村,农业强、农村美、农民富,经济社会全面进步,各项事业繁荣发展。那时的中国,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,中国人民享有更加幸福安康的生活,中国向着实现人的全面发展和全体人民共同富裕更高目标继续迈进。

中国的发展离不开世界,世界的发展也离不开中国。中国始终将自身发展与人类发展紧密相连,始终做世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者。繁荣发展的未来中国,是更加开放包容的中国,是与世界形成更加良性互动的中国,是为建设更加美好的世界作出更大贡献的中国。

Conclusion

China has won the final battle against extreme poverty. By achieving the goals of the poverty elimination campaign as scheduled, the Chinese people have made solid strides towards a better life and common prosperity. Yet China remains the world's largest developing country, still confronted by the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's growing desire for a better life, and by the gaps between urban and rural areas and between regions. China still has much to do in order to realize people's all-round development and common prosperity for all.

Removing the label of extreme poverty is not the end, but the beginning of a new life and a new journey. The CPC will always remain committed to its founding mission, striving for the people's wellbeing and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It will always put the people before everything else, and continue to work for people's all-round development, and common prosperity and a better life for all.

There will be no national rejuvenation without a thriving countryside. Following the victory in the final battle against extreme poverty, China will continue to consolidate the results of poverty elimination, dovetail new measures with rural revitalization, and shift its focus in work related to agriculture, rural areas and rural people. In the new era, China will act on its new development philosophy and build on its new development paradigm. It will prioritize affairs related to agriculture, rural areas and rural people, and follow a socialist path with Chinese characteristics in revitalizing the countryside by introducing more vigorous measures and pooling more resources.

By 2035, China will have achieved basic socialist modernization. With decisive progress in rural revitalization by that time, agriculture and rural areas will be modernized and fundamentally restructured. Farmers will benefit from the quality employment which comes with better jobs, relative poverty will be further alleviated, and concrete progress will be made in achieving common prosperity for all. Rural areas will enjoy the same basic public services as urban areas, brought about by improved systems and mechanisms for urban-rural integration. Farmers will enjoy a better cultural environment in civil and neighborly communities, and benefit from improved rural governance. There will be a fundamental improvement in the eco-environment; the goal of building a beautiful, livable countryside will be basically realized.

By 2050, China will have become a great modern socialist country in every dimension, realizing the Second Centenary Goal and fully revitalizing the countryside. At that time, China will have a strong agriculture, a beautiful and revitalized countryside, and prosperous farmers, enjoying across-the-board progress in society and the economy, and thriving endeavors in every sector. At that time, the Chinese people will embrace a happier life in common prosperity, and the nation will continue to march towards higher goals of all-round development of the people and common prosperity for all.

China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world; and the world needs China for further development. With this in mind, China has always been a builder of global peace, a contributor to global growth, and a guardian of the international order. In the future, a more prosperous China will also be more open and inclusive; it will interact more constructively with the international community, and make a greater contribution to building a better world.


附录 中国扶贫标准的变化和调整


根据国民经济社会发展水平和贫困人口基本生活需求确定扶贫标准,是中国实施大规模、有计划、有组织扶贫以来一直的做法。

中国第一次制定扶贫标准是1986年,为206元,对应的贫困人口数量为1.25亿,主要解决温饱问题。2001年制定第一个十年农村扶贫开发纲要时,将扶贫标准提高到865元,对应的贫困人口数量为9422.8万。2011年制定第二个十年农村扶贫开发纲要时,将扶贫标准提高到2300元(2010年不变价),对应的贫困人口数量为1.22亿。

脱贫攻坚以来,中国的贫困人口识别和退出以户为单位,主要衡量标准是“一收入”“两不愁三保障”。“一收入”就是该户年人均纯收入稳定超过现行国家扶贫标准,“两不愁三保障”就是稳定实现不愁吃、不愁穿和义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障。中国的贫困人口退出标准是综合性多维标准,不仅衡量收入水平,还考量贫困人口生存权发展权的实现程度,体现了中国经济社会发展实际和全面建成小康社会的基本要求。

 

Appendix

Adjustments of China's Poverty Standards

China has implemented large-scale planned and organized poverty alleviation programs. Standards for poverty alleviation were formulated according to its social and economic development and the basic living needs of its poor populations.

In 1986, China set its first poverty standard at RMB206, designed to provide adequate food and clothing for 125 million poor. In 2001, when formulating the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2001-2010), the nation raised the standard to RMB865 for 94.23 million poor. In 2011, when formulating the Outline of Development-driven Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2011-2020), China readjusted the standard to RMB2,300 (based on the 2010 price index) to help 122 million poor.

In the final stage of fighting extreme poverty, impoverished people in China were registered and deregistered by household. The criteria are personal incomes, and the household's situation with reference to the Two Assurances and Three Guarantees. The former requires that the annual average per capita income for a household remains steady above China's current poverty line. The latter refers to guarantees of adequate food and clothing, and access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing for impoverished rural residents.

China's standards for deregistering those who have emerged from poverty are comprehensive, including income, and the extent to which they are assured the rights to subsistence and development. These standards reflect the realities of China's social and economic development as well as the basic requirements for achieving moderate prosperity in all respects.

 

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