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港珠澳大桥通车!“超级工程”背后都有哪些故事?

来源:中国日报双语新闻微信公众号,人民日报微信公众号,CGTN,央视新闻
日期:2018-10-25

历经5年前期设计、9年建设、连接粤港澳三地的世界最长跨海大桥——港珠澳大桥(the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge)终于在昨天通车啦!

 

The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) officially opened to traffic on Wednesday, after almost nine years of construction.

图片来源:CGTN

 

一段航拍,先睹为快↓↓↓

 

港珠澳大桥是一个全长55公里的桥岛隧综合跨海工程,也是目前世界上最长的跨海大桥。

 

The 55km-long bridge is the longest sea-crossing bridge in the world. 

 

大桥包含一段6.7公里的海底隧道,桥梁工程约23公里。它通过东西两个海中人工岛与桥梁部分连接。

 

Its main section includes 23 kilometers of bridges, 6.7 kilometers of tunnels, and two artificial islands.

 

大桥开通后将极大地缩短港珠澳三地间的距离,珠海至香港的交通时间将由现在的陆路3小时缩短至30分钟左右。

 

Once operational, HZMB will cut travel time between Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) and Zhuhai City from three hours to just 30 minutes, further integrating the cities in the Pearl River Delta. 

 

港珠澳大桥的开通,也引来一众外媒强势围观↓↓↓

 

《纽约时报》网站:中国开通跨海大桥连接香港、澳门和内地(珠海)

 

《华尔街日报》发表文章称,港珠澳大桥将助力粤港澳大湾区的融合建设:

“中国34英里的新大桥将连接规划的城市群中的7000万人”

 

好啦,接下来咱们就一起看看关于港珠澳大桥的那些事儿~

 

运营篇

 

 

 

什么车可以上桥?有什么交通方式让我使用这座桥? 

 

请参见以下香港立法会的最新文件。其中穿梭巴士仅在香港与澳门、珠海口岸之间穿梭,不会过境;而巴士则会过境,与现有的经其他口岸来往内地与港澳的跨境巴士运作方式相同;所有公共交通方式均为24小时运作。

 

注:货车方面,现时粤港牌货车可以免手续使用港珠澳大桥,而新配额在初期暂不发放

 

此外,已经获发经其他口岸来往粤港的私家车,如:深圳湾口岸、皇岗口岸,政府会在通车后适时开放申请免手续试用港珠澳大桥;根据香港运输署的资料,截至2017年,有两地牌照的香港车辆有30400辆;据港珠澳大桥管理局介绍,内地现有的两地牌车辆也超过两万辆。政府方面均承诺,视大桥开通后的交通量,会动态调整各车型配额。

 

由于香港口岸的配套道路没有完全建成,为避免香港机场附近道路拥堵,三地政府在开通初期会用逐渐发放配额方式适当限制车流量。随着配套道路在2020年左右完全建成,车辆配额和通行政策会进一步放开。

 

Among the vehicle types authorized to use the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, shuttle buses will run only between the ports of Hong Kong and Zhuhai/Macao, not crossing any boundaries. 

 

Cross-boundary coaches via HZMB operate similarly to current coaches that run between the Chinese mainland and the two special administrative regions through existing ports, such as the Shenzhen Bay Port. 

 

Cross-boundary private cars under quotas for existing boundary crossings (i.e. Shenzhen Bay and Lok Ma Chau) will be allowed to use the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge without additional procedures on a trial basis.

 

According to figures from the Transport Department in Hong Kong, the number of Hong Kong cross-boundary private cars issued with valid Closed Road Permits (CRP) was 30,400 as of 2017. 

 

The number of mainland cross-border boundary cars with such permits is more than 20,000, according to the bridge operator, HZMB Authority. 

 

Governments in Hong Kong and the mainland have both promised flexible adjustment of quotas for cross- boundary private cars in accordance with the traffic volume after the bridge opens. 

 

 

 

 

大桥上的车靠左还是靠右行?车速限制是多少?

 

港珠澳大桥是双向六车道,限速为100km/h。由于大桥的主体部分位于内地水域,因此车辆都会靠右行驶,待行驶到相应的口岸完成出入境手续后,会完成左右侧交通转换。

 

The HZMB has a dual 3-lane carriageway; the speed limit is 100km/h on the main bridge.

 

As the bridge is mostly located in mainland waters, vehicles will keep to the right of the road. Cars can change to the left after having passed the boundary checkpoints in Hong Kong and Macao. 

 

 

 

 

大桥怎么收费?

 

收费由港珠澳大桥管理局负责,货币为人民币。大桥只有一个收费站,位于珠海/澳门口岸一侧,共设20个收费窗口,全部支持国标ETC用户和香港的快易通电子缴费系统。除了现金,全部收费窗口都支持银行卡和电子支付。

 

The HZMB Authority will be in charge of the bridge toll. The toll is in Renminbi. There’s only one toll plaza with 20 toll gates, which is located near the Macao and Zhuhai ports on the mainland side. All toll gates will be available for auto-toll systems in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. Besides cash, bank cards and e-payment such as WeChat Pay and Alipay are all available. 

 

收费(每车单程,货币:人民币) 

私家车、出租车:150元

穿梭巴士:300元

跨境巴士:200元

货柜车:115元

普通货车:60元 

 

 

其中,香港与珠海、澳门口岸间的穿梭巴士票价最高为每人63元人民币,平均约10分钟一班,车程约40分钟;跨境巴士的乘客票价视不同城市目的地有所不同,例如,香港红磡到澳门威尼斯人约150元人民币,车程约110分钟;香港九龙至珠海市区票价则约100元人民币,车程约75分钟。相比航程70分钟单程约175元人民币的船票,提供点对点服务的巴士票价还是很有竞争力的!

 

 

 

 

三地共建的大桥,谁负责管理?如何通关?桥上发生意外怎么办?

 

答案当然是三地共同管理啦,港珠澳大桥管理局了解一下。它是由香港特别行政区政府、广东省人民政府和澳门特别行政区政府共同设立的事业单位。主要任务是:承担港珠澳大桥主体部分的建设、运营、维护和管理等工作。

 

The Main Bridge located in mainland waters will be managed by the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Authority, which was jointly founded by the governments of Guangdong province, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao SAR in 2010. It is responsible for the construction, operation, maintenance and management of the Main Bridge. 

 

管理局设立在珠海,同时,在大桥的东、西人工岛上,会有道路救援、养护、消防等部门入驻,负责大桥的日常运营、维护和应急处理。

 

The Authority is located in Zhuhai. Meanwhile, there are monitoring centers and departments charged with responsibilities such as road rescue, maintenance and fire services, on the west and east artificial islands of the bridge, for daily operation, maintenance and emergencies. 

 

 

香港口岸、珠海和澳门口岸也都是24小时开放,由三地政府各自负责设立和管理,实行“三地三检”;其中珠海和澳门之间采取“合作查验、一次放行”的创新模式,即旅客可以一次性完成珠海和澳门之间的出境和入境手续。

 

The ports in Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao will be open 24 hours daily. They are built and managed by local governments respectively.

 

Zhuhai and Macao will cooperate to implement a one-off customs clearance in the two ports. The two cities will share immigration data, allowing travelers to finish the exit and entry process in one pass. 

 

 

 

 

建设篇

 

 

 

大桥多长?为什么中间还有隧道和人工岛?

 

港珠澳大桥是一个全长55公里的桥岛隧综合跨海工程,也是目前世界上最长的跨海大桥。大桥包含一段6.7公里的海底隧道,是我国第一条外海沉管隧道,也是目前世界上最长的公路沉管隧道。它通过东西两个海中人工岛与桥梁部分连接。

 

HZMB is a 55-kilometer long bridge-island-tunnel complex across the Pearl River Estuary. It is the world’s longest sea crossing. The bridge consists of a 6.7-km undersea tunnel, which is the country’s first offshore immersed tunnel and the world’s longest immersed tunnel for road traffic. It is connected to the bridge through two offshore artificial islands. 

 

 

为什么要建这么一条隧道呢?为了给珠江口将来的航运发展预留可通行30万吨邮轮的航道。由于航道位置靠近香港国际机场,满足相应航道宽度的斜拉桥的桥塔会超过机场附近的空域限高,因此只能走海下,建隧道。

 

The tunnel is built to reserve room for a planned shipping channel for passenger liners with a displacement of 300,000 tons. As the planned location is close to the Hong Kong International Airport, where there is height limitation in the airspace, a tunnel must be built subsea instead of a bridge with tall towers. 

 

 

 

大桥是什么时候开始建的?花了多少钱?

 

在珠江口建跨海大桥的方案最早由香港实业家胡应湘先生于1983年提出,几经波折,于2004年经由国务院批准后正式开始进行可行性研究,2009年批准研究报告,并于2009年12月15日正式开工,由时任国务院副总理李克强在珠海举行开工典礼。

 

The plan to build a link road across the Pearl River Estuary was first initiated by Hong Kong industrialist Gordon Wu Ying-sheung in 1983. After several twists and turns, the Feasibility Study started in March 2004 under State Council’s approval. The study report was approved in October 2009, followed by a commencement ceremony on Dec 15 in the same year, chaired by then Vice-Premier Li Keqiang in Zhuhai.

 

大桥总投资额约1200亿人民币,其中三地投资共建的主桥部分,长29.6公里,占其中的480.68亿元。剩余部分为各地政府投资兴建的口岸和连接线。

 

 

主桥的480.68亿元投资里,57.5%为银行贷款,会由大桥未来30年的通行费偿还;剩下42.5%为政府投资,其中香港特区政府占43%,广东省政府和中央政府占44.5%,澳门特区政府占12.5%。这一比例是三方政府根据大桥建成后各自可获得的经济效益占比拟定的。

 

So far, the latest cost of HZMB is about 120 billion yuan (US$17.4 billion), of which the 29.6-km Main Bridge invested by three governments is about 48.1 billion yuan. The rest are investments by individual governments on their ports and link roads to the Main Bridge. 

 

The cost allocation among the three governments shown as above is settled by the assessment of economic benefits they can get after the bridge opens. 

 

作用篇

 

 

 

为什么要建这座桥? 

 

➀ 对香港:连接珠江口西岸,为经济发展打开腹地,与粤西、广西 等建立更快速的陆路连接,巩固香港航运中心、空港中心、国际货柜码头的地位;加强与祖国内陆的交流,进一步融入国家发展大局

 

➁ 对内地:带动粤西和广西的经济发展;促进特区与内地交流;增加粤港澳大湾区内交通联系,促进粤港澳大湾区发展;更好地利用香港发达的航运和国际联系;通过陆路将香港与西部广袤的大陆连接,直通东南亚,促进“一带一路”发展

 

➂ 对澳门:增强与香港和内地的联系,促进产业多样化

 

 

通车后,由珠海至香港葵涌货柜码头的陆路通行时间,将由现在的3.5小时缩短至1小时15分钟;由珠海至香港国际机场的陆路通行,将由4小时缩短至45分钟。

 

除了缩短客运时间,更重要的是,两地的货运有了直接的陆上通道,这对于两岸物流业、会展业、食品行业等需要快速交通支援的行业,将有非常显著的促进作用。

 

The most important benefit is that the bridge will provide the east and west of the Pearl River Estuary with direct road connections, which can enormously facilitate the development of industries that rely on fast transportation, such as logistics, food and convention and exhibition. 

 

 

 

 

为什么港珠澳大桥不连接深圳?

 

大桥主要设计师和总工程师说,其实2003年大桥的前期规划选址时就考虑了这个问题。连接深圳的所谓“双Y”方案,其实是一个想少花钱多做事的经济学概念。实际上,从工程角度来讲,一座桥承载不了这么多功能,“纸上画容易,实际在技术上和未来的管理上会有很多难题”,大桥设计师之一刘晓东告诉《中国日报》。

 

将来珠江口会有5条通道,每个通道作用不同,而深圳和珠江口西岸的连接由在建的深中通道实现。港珠澳大桥率先建设,可能不是交通量最大,但作为大湾区第一个物理连接,会为整个湾区的产业布局和发展做准备。

 

同时,港珠澳大桥也为其他跨海工程储备了一大批优秀的工程师和管理者。目前在建的深中通道,就是一个在港珠澳大桥沉管隧道、人工岛等关键技术突破的基础上兴建的另一个“桥岛隧”综合跨海工程。

 

Looking toward the future of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Liu Xiaodong, a major designer of HZMB, told China Daily that there will be five bridges across the Pearl River Estuary by around 2035, or one sea crossing every 20 kilometers parallelly. 

 

Future traffic demand was taken into account during the preliminary design for the bridge, back in 2003, Liu said. 

 

“You can’t expect one bridge to meet all needs,” Liu said. “HZMB may not carry the largest traffic volume; as the first sea crossing in the Pearl River Estuary, it will pave the way for the adjustment of industrial structure in the Bay Area,” he said.

 

HZMB has also accumulated precious experience for similar projects in the future. 

 

The under-construction Shenzhen-Zhongshan Link is a perfect example. Based on technologies, marine data, talents and all the other experience from HZMB, the new link is also a bridge-island-tunnel complex, about 40 kilometers to the north of HZMB.

 

以上内容转载自“中国日报双语新闻”,已获授权。

 

资料来源:香港立法会、港珠澳大桥官方网站、港珠澳大桥管理局、香港运输及房屋局、跨境巴士与穿梭巴士网站、中国日报与相关管理者和工程师的专访

 

记者/图表:何疏思

监制:宋平 李瑶 刘予涵

出品人:周立

图片:邓永安 港珠澳大桥管理局 格力地产

中国日报亚太分社出品

 

最后送上一张长图,带你看“桥通港珠澳”~(戳图↓屏幕横过来,上桥!)

图片来源:央视新闻

 

一桥飞架粤港澳,天堑变通途!向超级工程建设者们致敬!

 

综合来源:中国日报双语新闻微信公众号,人民日报微信公众号,CGTN,央视新闻

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